Good kicking is needed in futsal. Accuracy and fast kicking could be achieved when players have good technique. Usually the coach will identify the major characteristics that can help players to train in improving their instep kicking techniques as instep kicking is similarly to football instep kicking. Football and futsal players applied the same kicking technique during instep kicking.
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There are many studies in which the characteristics of instep kicking techniques in football are described. Biomechanical analysis of futsal instep kicking could help players to improve players’ techniques and reduce the likelihood of injuries that may occur while kicking.
Various factor including the distance of the kick from the goal, the type of kick used, the air resistance and the technique of the main kick determine success of instep soccer (Kellis and Katis, 2007). However, no research has been done in compared different approaches in instep kicking technique on performance outcome among elite female players. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the techniques between angled approach and straight approach instep kicking.
OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The knowledge gained about the three approached in this study could benefit coaches and players in training and producing favourable outcomes.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There are three techniques in instep kicking. By doing this study, coaches and players will benefit by knowing which techniques and the factors that could produce better outcome.
Ho: There is no significance different of ball speed between straight, angled 25° and 45° approach instep kicking.
Ha: There is significance different of ball speed between between straight, angled 25° and 45° approach instep kicking.
Ho: There is no significance different of ball trajectory between straight, angled 25° and 45° approach instep kicking.
Ha: There is significance different of ball trajectory between straight, angled 25° and 45° approach instep kicking.
Support Foot Placement
Ho: There is no significance different of support foot placement between straight, angled 25° and 45° approach instep kicking.
Ha: There is significance different of support foot placement between straight, angled 25° and 45° approach instep kicking.
This study will be delimitated to the opinion of elite female futsal players. The reason of these elite players has been chosen because they well continuously trained and experienced on futsal game. A player that has been selected must be healthy as they have to produce energy and force to produce the kicking. The process of kicking needs players to kick with their right leg. Other delimitations would be the court surface. This study will be done on rubber rice court surface and 6 meter spot from the middle of the goal post as the 6 meter is the penalty spot in futsal court.
Background of the study
Futsal has been played all over the world including Malaysia. This game also included as a mass sport which aimed at encouraging community to involve in sports and physical recreation (National Sports Policy, 1988). There were a lot of competitions had been held for every level of community. For example, Football Association of Malaysia cooperated with FELDA had organized National Felda League event since 2007 until now. Most of Malaysian futsal players were selected from this event.
Futsal is one of the favorite sports that can have serious implicated to both players and the team. Futsal is also a ball with many demands on the technical and tactical of the individual player. Futsal is played between two teams of five players, one of who is the goalkeeper and up to seven substitutes per team. Futsal is also played with a smaller ball less bounce than a regulation football. The rules create an emphasis on improvisation, creativity and technique as well as ball control and passing in small spaces.
The most studied skill in football is kickng (Lees and Nolan, 1998), with the majority of studies reporting on the two-dimensional and three-dimensional kinematics of the low or maximum velocity instep kick (Barfield et al., 2002; Isokawa and Lees, 1988; Lees and Nolan, 2992; Lees et al., 2005; Levanon and Dapena, 1998; Shan and Westershoff, 2005)
In futsal, the ball kicking technique is alike football. Ball kicking could be produced by variance type of kicking such as sole of the foot, outside of the foot, instep of the foot and inside of the foot.
Instep kicking has been studied from the youngest age groups to seasoned professionals (Asai et al., 1980; Asami and Nolte, 1983; Barfield, 1993; Barfield, 1995; Barfield, 1997; Bloomfield et al., 1994; Butterfield and Loovis, 1994; Elliot et al., 1980; Kaufmann et al., 1975; Luhtanen, 1988; Narici et al., 1988; Olson, 1985; Plagenhoff, 1971) and there is general agreement that players exhibit less mechanical variability and greater temporal proximity of the kicking movement components compared with novice or unskilled players (Abo-Abdo, 1981; Ben-Sira, 1980; Chyzowych, 1979; Dos Angos and Adrian, 1986; Gainor et al., 1978; Hay, 1996; Nishijima et al., 1996; Rodano and Tavana, 1993; Phillips, 1985; Tsaousidis and Zatsiorsky, 1996).
Instep kick which is the most important and studied skill; of the actions performed more during soccer (Markovic et al., 2006; Nunomer et al., 2006). The instep kick is the most powerful kick in the sport of soccer to compare sole, insole and outside of kicking technique (Spotlight on Youth Sports, 1984).
Therefore, instep kicking techniques are important and must be prevailed among futsal players.
Ball speed depends on the velocity of the foot (distal segment) upon impact as well as the quality of ball – foot impact (Asai et al., 2002; Bull Andersen et al., 1999; Lees and Nolan, 1998; Levanon and Dapena, 1998). Correlation and coefficients between ball and foot speed reported in the literature are high (r> 0.74) (Asami and Nolte, 1983; Levanon anda Dapena, 1998; Nunome et al., 2006). The higher the speed of the foot before impact, the shorter the foot – ball contact and the highest the ball speed. For this reason, the ball-to-foot speed ratio has been considered as an index of a successful kick (Asami and Nolte, 1983; Kellis et al., 2004; Lees and Nolan, 1998; Nunome et al., 2006; Plagenhoef, 1971). For instep kicks, ball-to-foot speed ratios reported in the literature range from 1.06 to 1.65 (Asami and Nolte, 1983; Isokawa and Lees, 1988; Kellis et al., 2006; Nunome et al., 2006) depending on the foot area used to examine.
The speed of the ball is the main biomechanical indicator of kicking success and it is the result of various factors, including technique (Lees and Nolan, 1998), optimum transfer of energy between segments (Plagenhoef, 1971) approach speed and angle (Isokawa and Lees, 1988; Kellis et al., 2004), skill level (Commetti et al., 2001; Luhtanen, 1988), gender (Barfield et al., 2002), age (Ekblom, 1986; Narici, et al., 1988), the characteristics of football impact (Asai et al., 2002; Bull Andersen et al., 1999, Tsaousidis and Zatsiorsky, 1996) and type of kick (Kermond and Konz, 1978; Nunome et al., 2002; Wang and Griffin, 1997).
Kicking from an angled approach up to 45° may increase the ball speed, although this increase may not statistically significant (Isokawa and Lees, 1988). Kicking with running approach demonstrates higher ball speed values compared with static approach kicks (Opavsky, 1988). Another important thing is the placement of the support foot behind, beside or in front of the ball. There is no general consensus regarding the placement of ball beside the foot. It has been suggested that the foot should land 5-10cm behind and 5-28cm beside the ball (Hay, 1993).
In mature, skillful, soccer players the instep kick (IK) involves a complex interaction of angled approach to the ball, subsequent support foot (SFC) contact with the ground accompanied by sequential transfer of momentum from proximal to distal body segments in the swing or kicking limb. Following the angled approach the support foot is placed alongside and adjacent the ball with the toe of the support foot pointed in the intended direction of ball movement. The kicking limb at SFC is in a position of hip extension, knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion. In powerful IK, following preparation of the kicking limb, the hip is forcefully flexed and the knee is sequentially extended so that the forces generated can be channeled into propelling the ball. At ball or foot contact powerful kickers keep the foot or ankle complex locked and tightly plantar flexed so forces for propelling the ball can be maximized (Chyzowych, 1979; Hay, 1996; Tsaousidis and Zatsiorsky, 1996).
In this study, researcher will choose pre-experimental design as the research design. One shot study will be conducted. Researcher selects this research design upon subjects which are well prevailed and familiarized in instep kicking as the subjects are Malaysia female futsal players. The purpose of this selective design is because researcher wants to find the outcomes of those techniques without doing pre and post test. Researcher also would not involve any treatment to see the outcomes.
Subjects for this study will be female futsal players which must be in a good health to perform the test. Sample size for this pre-experimental would be twelve subjects that included the substitutes. The kicking process will need subjects to kick with the right leg as the preferred leg.
These are the apparatus that be needed during data collection;
To measure the length from a cone to another cone and to ensure the 6 meter spot from the middle of goal post.
To mark around the subjects that put on the futsal court surface as an indicator for the calibration.
The laptop will be functioned for transmitting human motion that will be recorded from videos camera into the software.
The test will be done on a rubber rice futsal pitch.
Futsal ball which is in size 4 is required to fulfil this test.
Sony High Speed Video Camera
Two Sony high speeds video camera will be set up to record subjects’ motions during the test and provide 5 to 300 frames per second.
Silicon Coach Pro Software
The test will be analyzed with Silicon Coach Pro Software in version 7 as the software is designed to analyze movement and could give instant feedback base on recording human movement.
A Radar Gun
It will be functioned as detector in detecting of ball speed.
Before the test for angled and straight approaches
Subjects needs to do warm up and stretching.
The kicking instructions will give be given immediately before the test.
During the test
During the test, subjects will be perform two type of instep kicking. They need to wear suitable attire and shoe to perform the trials. The next step, subjects should get to the 6 meter spot to do the instep kicking. Subjects are also will be required to kick with maximum effort and ten trials will be conducted.
After the test for angled and straight approaches
Subjects need to do cooling down and stretching.
This will be the setup plan for this study. Camera A will be setup right on the back of the subject while the Camera B at the sagittal view on the right of the subject. Both videos will be put statically on 10 meters away from the subject. Video cameras also will zoom in and focusing on lower limbs of subjects. The futsal ball will be placed at the 6 meter spot and the subjects will do the instep kicking on that spot. Subjects are freely to move to do run ups as long as they managed to do the angled or straight approach techniques.
The Camera B will be recorded the subjects’ movement that parallel to it. It will capture the subjects’ performance while do the instep kicking for both techniques. Camera A also has the same objective. It will record subjects’ performance from behind. Radar gun will be placed at behind of the goal post to calculate the ball speed.
Figure 3.5a Setup Plan
A calibration from study area will be identified according the length between cones as an indicator for all measurements. Data collection also will be collected from video capturing from both high speed video cameras that will be placing on the sagittal (left and right), frontal and back view of subjects. Video cameras will record subjects’ movement during instep kicking process for both angled and straight approaches. Therefore, the results of video recording will be transferred through fire wire cable from high speed video cameras to a laptop. Those footages then will be saved and analyzed using Silicon Coach Pro Software.
Trial recording sheet that containing of ball speed, ball trajectory and supporting foot placement will be jotted for every trials that subject will be done. Each of sheets will be named for each subject.
Results of ball speed will be collected with radar gun which will be placed behind on the goal post which is in frontal position with subjects.
The raw data from the data collection that has been saved in software folder will be analyzed through Silicon Coach Software. Researcher will define and digitize thoroughly each frame of the videos. All videos then will be synchronized at the same spot from the kicking process. Foot-to-ball impact will be as an indicator to be synced to each video for both angled and straight approaches in every trial. Frames that will be selected will be captured as static photo during the recording played. The software able to calculate kinematics each frames that will be digitized. For this study, this software will analyze the distance of supporting foot placement and ball trajectory.
The data will be interpreted from a computer analysis. All raw data that has been calculated will be inserted into SPSS to find the central tendency. Hence, computer statistical programs will be chose.
In this study, pre-experimental design as the research design with one shot study will be conducted. Data analysis will be collected and analyzed from the three conditions which are from angled 25° approach, angled 45° approach and straight approach that consisted three dependent variables which are ball speed, ball trajectory and support foot placement. Therefore, one way ANNOVA with repeated measure will define those footages data. Post hoc on means will be conducted to see the differences if it found to be significant.