Formations And Techniques In Soccer Physical Education Essay

Different type of formations may be used depending on the skill of the opposite team but also whether the team is playing more attacking or defending. A 4-2-4-1 formation is a soccer formation with only one striker upfront. The striker is the player located highest up the field, his main task is to score goals for the team. Before we could analysis the 2 players in the case, we would like to look at some of the tips to be a good striker. A good striker must be able:

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Kick the ball in the goal (good at striking). A striker who can score goals on a regular basis will become important to his team. As a striker, he needs to learn to score with all different parts of the body.

Shot on Site (aiming). In today game, scoring opportunities are so rare as compared to last time, so when the striker has the chances to shot, don’t wait. In addition, good strikers must constantly running (good agility and speed), trying to create spaces and taking risks.

It only takes one. Many strikers will beat players and create space for themselves, but yet hesitate to shoot in front of goal.

Figure 1 below shows the no of times both the player score a goal, saved with 2 hands and blocked. Preliminary analyses from Figure 1, revealed that player B tends to score more goals (13) than player A (8), since the coach are looking for a striker, the ability to saved with 2 hands and blocked are not so important as compared to the ability to score.

Figure 2 shows the no of chances both player A and B missed by shooting the ball wide away from the goal post, shooting the ball too high in front of goal post and missed a goal even in front of the goal post. As observed, player A tends to have higher misses (12) than player B (2), in terms of shooting the ball wide. The different of shooting the ball too high is not too great among the 2 players.

In summary, as compared to player A, player B is a key returning scorer, who averaged a healthy 13 goals in the last season. His expertise’s on attack puts extreme stress on opposing defenses. He is sharp on the goal, seldom placed the ball wide. However, he tends to have some misses when he is near the goal post. The final choice: Player B to be selected.

Figure 1 Players able to score

Figure 2 Players not able to score

Part B

What is periodization?

Periodization is defined as a process to structure the training program into phases, where athletes will train progressively and with variety. In general, a standard periodization plan consists of macro cycle (2-4 months), meso cycle (2-6 weeks) and micro cycle (5-7 days) which last for at least 12 months. Tudo Bompa is the man who improved the training system invented by the USSR, the improved periodization system stressed the importance of having different training stress throughout the year rather than to maintain a constant training plan. Using this method, Tudo Bopma has produced 11 medalists in various Olympics including 2 gold medals and 2 World championships for: track and field and rowing (Wikipedia, 2010).

The importance and relevance of periodization in sports

Many times, athletes are no longer motivated to train because they realized that their sport performance have not improved, no matter how hard they train hard. Having periodization is the way to change the athletes’ training program at regular intervals so that the athletes can work harder. Periodization can be applied to many various sport ranging from cycling, marathon, rowing and it can be used it on both male and female.

Periodization training, in particular includes 7 different major components, they are technical, strength, power, speed, anaerobic, aerobic and mental. A study conducted for 34 women at the Human Performance Laboratory at Ball State University has proved that a periodized strength-training program can give better results than a non-periodized program The women in the periodized group have gained more in lean muscle, greater reductions in body fat and more strength gains than the non-periodized group after 12 weeks (Marx, J.O, 2001).

Factors that affect periodization

Periodization plan can be affected by several factors, these includes training stress and non training stress. Athletes undergo training or competition too intensively will usually become fatigue after sometimes. Fatigue is one of the factors that affect the athletics’ sport performance; hence coaches developing the periodization plan must includes management of fatigue also. Athletes are human after all, they will get sick and injured sometimes, when athletes are sick they are no longer able to continue and follow the periodization plan. Other non training stresses are:

Lack of financial support from family or association,

Lack of motivation from the athletes themselves,

Social environment like countries at war, unrest,

Too much travelling that causes sickness among some athletes.

Description of the success of the periodization plan

The success of the periodization plan is when all the athletes are able to complete all the competition that the coaches have planned, with no injuries and sickness, they are able to achieve their peak sport performance and win medals for the countries, clubs etc.

Training plan for Mark
Figure 1 Macro Cycle for 12 months for Mark in 2010 – 2011
Observations in relation to the skills, motor abilities and types of training in a training plan for Mark.

According to Dr Ivan Astori (Dr Ivan Astori, 2010), a full knee reconstruction surgery is a major operation. Patients like Mark will experience high degree of pain after the operation and pain medication will be needed for the first 1 to 3 days. He will be able to sit in a chair and walk with crutches within 1 to 5 days. Mark will then undergo rehabilitation and physiotherapy till he is able to straighten out, flex and bend his knee. Next, he will be able to swim after 2 weeks of the surgery. After 2 to 3 months, the patient will be walking, biking and golfing, although running and jumping are discouraged. A full recovery to full strength is expected to take up 6 months.

A successful soccer player like Mark, he needs to rely on the precise coordination of stability, agility and power production, hence during the periodization cycle, needs such as proprioceptive and kinesthetic awareness components must be heavily trained so to put him back into competitive level. In addition, footwork drills are also important for him because of the numerous quick and rapid changes in direction and speed that occur during the match. With all these in mind, a periodization plan that includes different frequency, different intensity, time of training and type of training like aerobic, anaerobic, speed, power, strength, technique, tactics, will need to plan for him.

Specific objectives on the various phases of training/cycles in his training plan.

A typical English Premier League season will start in Aug and ends in May next year, hence the periodization plan has to start in Sep and end til Jul when the new season starts in Aug. The periodization plan for Mark were broken into different meso level like General Preparation, Specific Preparation, Pre Competition, Competition, Recovery cycles as shown in figure 1 and also the different volume and intensity level.

First, in the general preparation cycle which last for 5 months, since Mark is still recovering from his knee surgery, all the training will be concentrating on building his overall strength, improve his mental skill and aerobic level, but the level of intensity and volume must be maintained at low level (e.g. range 1 to 2, as shown in figure 2). The types of training could include swimming, cycling, weight training and slow jogging. All the training will be increased progressively from 1st to the 5th month without the comprised of the player’s injury.

Second, in the specific preparation cycle which last for the next 5 months, Mark’s training will be concentrating on Speed, Power and Mental skill, however as compared to the previous 5 months, the intensity and volume will have to slightly increase by 1 tick. The job of training speed in soccer can be very complex and it must be planned properly. Here are some of the attributes that will make a better player:

Speeding quickly off the mark

Accelerating quickly over 10-15 yards

Good speed endurance

Fast possession of the ball

Fastness of feet or agility

Able to change direction quickly

The ability to execute skills quickly

Fast in thinking (Sporting Excellence Ltd, 2010)

The types of training are as follow:

At the start of a training session, speed training like speed drills that completed over short distances with rests can be conducted, e.g. 6 X 25 meters each (500 meters total) with 2.5 minutes rest between each rep.

Soccer players must have the ability to maintain high levels of speed, even when tired, speed endurance e.g. run a long distance 150 yards at full intensity (90% – 100%) with full recovery 15 minutes between each repetition.

The types of Power training for Mark are weight training that includes high intensity, high weights and fast moving reps. The weight training will accomplish two of the main goals for the players; they are injury prevention and improved performance.

Third, in the pre-competition and competition cycle which last for 1 month and 8 months respectively, emphasis should be given to technique, tactical, mental skill and anaerobic training. Technical training should include improving the skill of kicking, dribbling, passing, shooting, throw in and heading. The 2 major components of soccer tactics are how to attack and defend. Tactical drills are executed in training sessions to develop an understanding of the tactics to be used in the next games against the weaknesses of the opposition team. The most popular type of anaerobic training for soccer players is interval training. This helps the soccer players to develop strength through short bursts of speed in a variety of actions such as stopping, turning, and directional changes.

Lastly, in the recovery cycle which last for at least 1 month, there are several methods can be apply to the players such as complete rest, like taking a 1 week break without any soccer training, go for massage, there are some positive effects of massage, these include relief of muscle fatigue and reduction of excessive swelling. Relaxation techniques can also improve the players’ ability to focus. Also, go to see a doctor for any physical damages to the players’ body.

Figure 2 Volume Vs Intensity for the Macro Cycle

Tapering is defined as the practice of reducing exercise in the days just before an important competition, tapering is used in many endurance sports, such as the marathon, athletics and swimming. A significant period of tapering like a week or more is essential for optimal performance. During tapering, volume, intensity, load of the training should be reduce so that the players can achieve peak performance during the game.

Specific intervention strategies to improve Marks movement skills and fitness.

The following are some of the strategies help to improve Mark’s movement skill and fitness:

To build up the strength and endurance of his leg muscles, in particular doing weight training for quadriceps and hamstrings. The type of weight training for quadriceps are squats (3 sets of 15 reps), lunges (3 sets of 15 reps), leg extension, leg lifts , leg press and for hamstrings are leg curls, leg dead lift, lunges.

To improve his cardiovascular conditioning, Marks need to move his body with his large muscle groups over a sustained period of time. these exercise can be cycling, swimming, jogging, circuit weight training.