Football has become a sport that interest by all population in this world. To play or become a good football player, the person must master many skills and have a healthy physical and mental. Football players also must combine speed, strength, agility, power, and endurance as basic qualities before the individual skills inherent to the playing of soccer can be utilized and depend on the position such as defense, strikers, midfielder and goal keeper. The understanding of the physical and the mental demands of the sport will enable a more scientific approach to the training of soccer players by (Bell and Rhodes 1975; Caru et. al. 1970; Fardy 1969).
According to (Nicks et. al. 2006; Romer et. al. 2002) Soccer is one of the intermittent sports that require high intensity bouts of exercise, with periods of passive or active recovery and coherent performance in repeated sprints need sufficient recovery between sprints.
So the player must have strong muscles, high muscular endurance, have strong core and have high level of aerobic capacity because the football game are played for 90 minutes. So the training must contain high aerobic training to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary functions so the athlete can cope with the sport.
Physiological assessment of athletes can provide an opportunity to examine or test the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. These adaptations can be valuable to the clinician, coaches and athletes themselves. For example, lab test that can be proceed to examine the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. To test the adaptation to the lung we can use pulmonary functions test to examine the effectiveness of lung muscles functioning, to check the vital capacity and to estimate the lung volumes.
The function of the lung is to deliver O2 to gas exchanged surface and exhaust CO2 to atmosphere. To achieve this with brain functioning normally, breath begins with contraction of inspiratory muscle enlarging the thorax, lowering intrathoracic and pleural pressures, enlarging the alveoli and airways, expanding the alveolar gas so reducing its pressure below atmospheric. Air at atmospheric pressure must flow into the thorax where it is conducted to, and diffuses, out into the alveoli. The carriage of air through the airways depends on the patency of the tube as well as on the consistency of the lung and the power of the respiratory muscles. At any one moment approximately 100ml of desaturated blood, with a strong affinity for O2, is spread over an area of 70 square meters( area of pulmonary capillary bed ) separated from air by a membrane 0.2 micron thick. Oxygen from alveolar air diffuses rapidly across the alveolar capillary membrane and is finally chemically combined with hemoglobin molecules within the circulating red blood cells (RBC), CO2 diffuses into opposite direction and is eliminated in expired gas.
The Vital capacity test is one of the oldest and most common respiratory tests. The measurement of vital capacity (VC) simply requires that an individual blow as large a breath of air as possible into a spirometer. Thus, the person expels three of the four components of the total lung volume when performing the vital test. There are inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume (TV) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV). It provides an indirect indication of the size of the lung, although it is not a complete measure of the entire lung size because it does not account for residual volume. In general facts, vital capacity relate to three uncontrolled characteristics which are age, stature and gender.
Lung function measurements also may be made for several reasons. They are useful in describing the lung for diagnostic purpose and subsequently in monitoring change. Accuracy and consistency are therefore very important, and a convention exists for the procedure of measurement and expression of result. In general, a measurement will only be accepted after multiple attempts have been scrutinized and expressed under standard conditions. These are usually body temperature and atmospheric pressure.
To guarantee accuracy, laboratory practice should include regular physical and biological calibration of the equipment. Standard for good laboratory conduct have been described greatly by British Thoracic Society or association of respiratory technologist and physiologist 1997. In health there are several factors which influence the magnitude of the lung function. These include height, sex, age, and to a lesser degree weight and ethnic origin (Cotes1979, Anthonisen1986). As a result, assessment of normalcy can only be compared with reference values. The better can be obtained from the study of larger numbers of normal people from the relevant population (European community for Coal and Steel 1983). Once obtained, results can be expressed as percentage predicted or, more correctly, by comparison with the 95% confidence interval for the valves.
It is interesting to know whether there are any different of lung volumes and lung capacities base on the different position in the football team such as striker position and defenses position. In football team, the defenders position tasks are different with the striker position task, for example the defensive position, the job of the centre backs or central defenders is to stop opposing players, particularly the strikers, from getting the opportunity to score, and to clear the ball from their own penalty area. So usually the defense has big physical to stop the striker, but different with the striker position, usually the strikers’ position players have not too big physical, because these positions are for the fast person to score the goal.
This study of pulmonary function of the Uitm football players base on position, have taken students group of both striker position and defense position of aged between 19-25 years and focused on essential parameters including, FVC and has used Spirometer. The spirometer device used to assess these parameters. This study mainly concentrates on lung parameters including Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and how far it varies base on the position such as striker and defense. The FVC also use to assess the lung function of Uitm soccer players.
1.2.1 Exhalation is act or an instance of exhaling air.
From journal sources Masaoka Y, Satoh H, Akai L, Homma I. (2010)
1.2.2 Inhalation is the drawing of air or other substances into the lung.
From internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
1.2.3 Total lung capacity are refers to the total amount of air in the lungs after taking the deepest breath possible.
From internet sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
1.2.4 Ventilation is a cyclic process of inspiration and expiration whereby optimal levels of Oxygen and cabondioxide are maintained in the alveoli and arterial blood.
1.2.5 Tidal Volume (VT) is defined as the amount of air that is inspired and expired during normal resting ventilation.
1.2.6 Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) is the maneuvers in which the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled following a inspiratory effort.
1.2.7 Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) is defined as the maximum volume of air that can be breathed voluntarily by an individual in one minute.
From internet sources http://www.answer.com/topic/maximum-breathing-technique
In this study, there are some purposes or objective that can be seen. They are;
To measure the level of fitness of Uitm football players by using force vital capacity
To determine whether there is a different in pulmonary functions base on position in football team such as defense and striker.
H°-There is no significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense
H?-There is significant different on pulmonary functions in football position such as striker and defense
1.5 Significant of the study
The significant of this study is mainly to measure and compare the lung volumes and capacities among the Uitm football player base on their position. Does the football position such as striker position and defenses position have differences effects on the lung volumes and capacities? The study is important because it can help certain peoples such as coach, physiotherapy and athletes especially in any kinds of sports to improve pulmonary functions. In addition, this study also can increase knowledge of coach and athletes, and show them how important is to have efficient and strong lung to improves their performances for their sport.
The first delimitation is the number of any kinds of research subjects, which consists thirty (n=30) age range from 19-25 years old will take part in this study. The subjects are selected in the Uitm football team and physically active and all the participants must be healthy. The subjects are divided into two groups of defense and striker. The others delimitation is the subject gender and age. The test will be conduct in Physiology Lab.
In this study, the participants involved may have some experience in vital capacity test. The participants that will be selects in this study will be participating in the lab test by using spirometer. The participation is important in this study because it can affect the results and data if the participants do not cooperate and participate willingly.
Besides that, the time constrains also can be one of the factors because the participants have their own schedules and will clash with the test schedules and can not attend the test.
In addition, money can be a problem because, there is no sponsored in this study. The daily activities of the participants will not be controlled.
In this study, it can be assumed that all the participants can do and completed the vital capacity test. Thus, I also believe and make sure that all the participants will understand and follow all the instruction given by the technician. The researchers also predict that all the participants are physically active and healthy.
The researcher assumed that the test in this study instrumentation was appropriate for the target population. I also predict that all the participants fully understood the types of test and method and how to perform it correctly.
The research participants accurately of completed the inventory leisure participation and leisure constraints to the best of their ability. Lastly, all the participants are coming from the same populations, which Uitm football team aged 19-25 years old.