Maintaining your individuality is more important than being part of a group because group identities and the group’s differences tend to be the basis for decisions a person might make as a citizen. Groups who focus on a specific ideology have distinctive arguments and address a particular audience. Most of the members of liberation ideologies, such as black liberation, women’s liberation, gay liberation, native people’s liberation, animal liberation and liberation theology focus on one’s self interest taking on too narrow a view rather than promoting the viewpoint that is for the greater good. People in these groups would make their decisions regarding who might best lead the country or what laws should be enacted or voted down based on a candidates gender, religious beliefs, race or sexual preference, and not as a citizen thinking of the best scenario for the majority. These groups make their decisions because on their groups self-interests and exclude the individual viewpoint. If these specific groups want equality, then they should think as individual citizens because in the United States, citizens are equal before the law. As stated in our text book pg. 252, “our courts of justice and other institutions should be blind to race, ethnicity, and other forms of group identification. No one should be given special treatment because of his or her race or ancestry or ethnic affiliation.”
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The self interest characteristic of “special groups” is also seen in the fascist and Nazism ideologies. Both of these groups are against individualism and class divisions. They were only in favor of one nation or one supreme race, in other words, one group. Hitler believed that his Nazi philosophy about the German people (the supreme group) was more important then the 6 million Jews who did nothing to him, yet he had them killed. The fascist’s belief of everything for the good of the nation state, a single leader and single party can be seen in the modern day Moammar Gadhafi regime in Libya. The Gadhafi regime was not beneficial to the whole nation because there were inequalities among the citizens of Libya who have now revolted and are striving for democracy and individual freedoms. I feel that democracy is built on the assumption that things are beneficial to the community as a whole, and coming to a consensus is possible, but it fails if the “special group” is only looking out for #1 and doesn’t care about anything else.
So if each individual would take on the liberal ideology viewpoint which is to believe that the individual is the best judge of what is in his or her interest, so each person ought to be free to live as he or she wants so long as they do not choose to interfere with other’s freedom to live as they want to live. The ideology of liberalism promotes individual liberty by attempting to guarantee equal opportunity to all people within a tolerant society. With the opportunity of equality, an equal footing, the discrimination based on race, religion, or gender would be removed and people would have the ability to achieve their own success, if they adopt a liberal viewpoint. So why then would it be necessary to join a group to achieve the same opportunities as you could have maintaining your individuality?
3. Fascism is a political ideology which exalts a nation above the individual and is headed by a single leader of a centralized government which thru regimented force suppresses any opposition and controls the state economy and social conditions. Fascism is a good form of government because the nation is more powerful and sustainable through generations who are bound together by their common traditions and their commitment to build a better life. Fascism which is founded on the citizen’s duty and an individual’s self sacrifice possibly even death is able to achieve the true value of a man as a member of his family, social group and nation, because the individual has no significance outside of their nation. Fascism enforces discipline and uses authority to mold men’s characters and faith. Fascism affirms “traditional values” such as family values, religious faith, patriotism, social structure, honor, and traditional hard work. Fascism is an ideology of order and obedience where people fall in line with the single leadership, and do not question or criticize the State which makes sure the country runs smoothly, through the use of state spending and regulation of corporations. A fascist government institutes public works programs to build bridges, canals and roads, hospitals and schools all for the good of the nation state.
A fascist government is organized on the theory that government should be run by representatives of the various centers of power in the state, such as Mussolini’s policy of corporativism. What fascism is all about in an economic sense is the protection and regulation of capitalism through private ownership as the means of production for the nation. Fascism uses the power of the nation to protect and to stabilize the economy by bringing the major capitalists into a system of cooperation with each other so that economic conflict is reduced and through their cooperation stability is achieved. An example would be for a ruling council to be developed and include industrial leaders, union representatives, religious leaders, and military personnel. Having these leaders of power incorporated into the government, achieves a rapid consensus on matters more rapidly when a country needs to organize for a war or disaster relief.
The nation can also become self-sufficient if the government has control over production and their profits. Fascism controls companies from manufacturing their products in foreign countries for a lower cost and then selling that product in their own country for a higher price and making a profit. Also keeping manufacturing jobs at home will provide employment to the nation’s people, reducing welfare and creating a strong economy. Under fascism, ownership of businesses is left in “private” hands, but the government regulates all businesses confiscating much of their profits and using them as the government decides, such as new roads, hospitals and schools, all for the good of the nation-state. The fascist system will also subsidize and regulate agriculture in order to achieve national self sufficiency.
Another advantage of a fascist government is in the fight against terrorism. The nation controls the military under one leader and when needed, it is easy to have the leader decide that the military will control and operate everything and everyone that enters the country. Also crime in the nation can be greatly reduced, because the military can be used to patrol the streets and enforce obedience.
True freedom for fascists is in serving the state and doing one’s part to promote the state’s power and glory. One way of doing this is to create self sufficiency of the nation thru a strong military. To create a strong military, the nation promotes science, mathematics, and engineering in schools in order to develop better scientists who will be employed to build better weapons for the military. These corporations are given funding from the State. Consequently, the State will produce the most advanced technologies in the world, having the most advanced weapons and acting as a boom to the economy by providing a large number of jobs, making people happy and bolstering the support for their leader. Because the State plays an important role in the economy, the State protects and promotes industries which are vital to State interests. Also because a fascist government controls the economy, unemployment is reduced and social welfare programs can be instituted such as social health insurance.
So to create a great Fascist state, it is simple; believe, obey and fight, against the enemies of the nation and this will bring glory to one’s people as a leading power in the world.
5. As a conservative, I feel our rights come from God and not the government. So consequently, government should be limited as to what it does to solve a nations problems and the real emphasis should be placed on the individual to solve the problems through traditional American values, personal responsibility, individual liberty and free markets. So with that premise in place, I would like to explore some of the following issues from a conservative ideological perspective vs. a liberal ideological perspective.
Liberals believe a woman has the right to decide what happens to her own body, including aborting a pregnancy. Liberals also believe that the government has the duty to protect human rights. I, as a conservative, believe human life begins at conception and that abortion is murder of a human being. An unborn baby is a living human being and has separate rights from those of their mother, thus the government should not use taxpayer dollars to fund abortions, as desired by liberals because that would not be protecting the human rights of the unborn, very hypocritical of liberals. Along those same lines, liberals want to legalize euthanasia. Neither abortion nor euthanasia should be legalized as it is immoral and unethical to deliberately end the life of a terminally ill person or an unborn human being. Taking an innocent life or that of a dying individual is murder, a capital offense in the United States, is punishable by death. Don’t the liberals get it? Where is the moral code that is necessary to sustain a free society? If, liberals can justify using lethal force ending an innocent unborn life or a helpless elderly citizen. This does not seem to coincide with true Liberalism.
Liberals support blanket amnesty for those who enter the United States illegally and want the undocumented immigrants to have the right to educational and health benefits that citizens receive. As a conservative, I don’t want to stop people who immigrate to our country for a better life and benefits, because life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness are God-given rights for every individual however, they should do so legally, otherwise they are placing an huge economic hardship on the United States by receiving benefits that legal citizens receive such as financial aid, welfare, and Medicaid because they are not of legal status. It is unfair to provide these services to illegal undocumented immigrants and make the true citizens support them through unfair taxation for these governmental programs. The United States borders should be secured and the immigration laws should be enforced for our country’s protection, security and economic survival.
Liberals, in the best interest to citizens, want the government to regulate the economy as a protection against big business. However, having competition and a free market system creates the largest opportunity for a higher standard of living for everyone. When governments encourage individual efforts for entrepreneurial success and not oppose personal wealth, there is more economic growth, more jobs and a higher standard of living for all citizens then when government tries to regulate the economic system. Putting numerous controls in place to artificially direct the economy can create serious problems. Along these same lines, liberals think because people are getting wealthier, they should be taxed more to enable the government to help and care for the poor and needy using tax dollars from the rich to create jobs and welfare programs. However, the traditional American value of hard work allows the economy to grow and prosper, leaving the money in the hands of the people and by lowering taxes and a smaller government allows Americans to save more, invest and spend their money to help those that they want to aid and not at the direction of the government. Government programs to the needy should be opportunities to make them become self-reliant encouraging work and independence rather then encourage laziness and continued dependence on government funding.
Liberals don’t see terrorism as a great threat to the United States and feel the best way to deal with terrorism is good diplomacy and that using military force against terrorists only causes hatred and more terrorism. However, as can be seen by the radical Islamism ideology being anti-liberal and anti-individual and rejecting “individual rights” and “rights against the larger society” as in the U.S. Bill of Rights, as stated in our text book, pg. 291, seems to be a very strong division between the militant Islamist’s goal of “establishing Islamic states that govern according to Islamic law and the destruction of Israel” and an existing peaceful Western world. It seems that to ensure individual liberties, a strong military force to provide security for society and intelligence-gathering methods are the best way to defeat terrorism in the United States and around the world. I don’t believe you can bargain with tyrants or terrorists.
The conservative ideological perspective is best because it stands up for what is right, and exhibits the principles that have made America great such as the love of God, love of family, the work ethic, patriotism, and individual freedom.
6. According to Thomas Hobbes in his major work the Leviathan, the “state of nature” is a “condition of perfect freedom in which no one had any authority over them” and “all individuals are equal-no one is born to hold a higher rank or status than anyone else -and have a natural right to do as they wish” as per our text book on pg. 52. If this was how mankind existed before government, I believe life in this state of nature would be every man for himself and against each other, “the survival of the fittest”. Man would live but not the life as we know it; it would be very animalistic and primeval. Man would resolve disputes through violence and war would run rampart around the world. Disease would be prevalent, and technology would be non existent. Man is competitive and contentious, so he would be an enemy to every other man, there would be no industry, no culture, no knowledge, and no society and man would live in continual fear and danger of constant death.
Because of the violence and uncertainty of life in the state of nature it would motivate people to form tribal leaders or governments. People would realize the need for peace and stability consequently they would seek a ruler or leader to govern them and in return the governing body would provide the peace and stability the people wanted as long as the laws of the government were abided, the people would then be free to pursue happiness without fear. Government is needed to provide stability and order, and protect the rights and liberties of the people. The purpose of government is to provide enough protection of life, liberty and property that individuals could enjoy these rights. Government creates order out of chaos, and punishes bad behavior but encourages moral behavior and tradition. Also governments provide needs for the community when these needs cannot be met by individuals. A government can play a major role in economic security by managing and regulating a country’s economy and stabilizing it for the benefit of its citizens. A government defines laws which establish equality and justice in a society. The government of a nation can provide basic health and education services for its citizens. Thus, government is like an umbrella that shields the citizens of a nation, while binding them together and helping them live in harmony. Governments are established with intent to increase the people’s potential for survival.