This essay seeks to examine how the concept of global governance as has become a key issue in solving global problems. The essay will start by introducing the concepts of global governance using different readings, lectures, Journals and my personal view regarding the issue. The first section of the essay will illustrate the need of global governance as required for global solution, and the second section will examine some criticism/challenges on implementation of global governance. Finally, the author will draw a conclusion based on review findings.
The concept of global governance has become a controversial idea in academic and international world today. For the last two decades the notion was mainly focus on political theory overview, however, the meaning has become broader and it includes further disciplines. Pattberg and Dingwerth (2006:188) accept that, ‘the meaning of global governance stems mainly from the fact that the concept is evoked not only where governance in the sense in which it has been introduced in political theory is at issue, but also in a variety of further contexts’. In this regards, it evaluates that the idea of global governance it relevant link with highly political processes, focused on accountability, legitimacy authority, democracy, though which increasing of market liberalisation and poverty reduction programmes can be addressed as global issue.
In addition Pattberg and Dingwerth (2006:187) state that, ‘global governance perspective can be defined in two major part namely normative and analytical uses. Normative use, is explained as political programme, global governance is not so much an empirical or analytical term as it is political concept that capture a vision of how societies should address the most pressing global problem’. The above definition emphasise that, global governance as political programme does not provide the consideration on the different extending problem it focus on political struggle, social transformation, democracy, power and rule of law. ‘At this point in time global governance is still more vision than description of actual state of the international state’ (ibid.2006:194).
On the other hand, analytical uses (observable phenomenon) level of implementation and pursuit of goals is very crucial for the process of global governance, ‘Global governance is conceived to include system of rule at all levels of human activity from the family to the international organisation’. (ibid.2006:189) In generally, this perspective insists that, the level of implementation of global governance is very essential and can be determined from family to international level. Hence, the term global does not directly mean only global in nature, but also the need to emphasize solving problems in state, regional and international levels is very necessary.
In generally, Global governance is understood as the way of solving globally problems. Most literatures describe this concept as a process of finding the solution to existing problems globally. Whitman (2009:8) argues that, global governance suffices to outline the scope of global governance as an activity: ‘Efforts to bring more orderly and reliability to social and political issues that are beyond the capacity of states to address individually. The above definition it evaluates that, the notion of global governance is an instrument or tools which is based on facing of emerging global problems, hence individual states may not alone solve the existing or emerging humanitarian and political problems.
Different with above scholars, many writes explain that, global governance is a process which is less integrated with global solution. Murphy. (2000: 791) accepts that, ‘global governance widely accepted, instance of the moral insufficiency of contemporary global governance’. This situation evaluate that, global governance demonstrating that, the process is insufficient to provide global solution due to exiting international institutional fail to take an immediate responds on humanitarian crisis. Example the 1994 Rwanda genocide, UN had enforced the Tusi military stopped massacre at early stage.
Furthermore, global governance has less correlation with globalisation process, hence; it has extended the gap on democratic procedure and economic interactions and balance of power between poor and rich countries. Murphy. (2000:791). ‘global-level governance is less concerned with globalisation’s undermining of substantive democracy and more concerned with the consequences of an unregulated world’. Therefore, it analysis that, the process of globalisation is undermine democratic procedure at national level at same time global governance is not effective in address national level issue.
In my view, I agree with Halabi’s view (2004:23) that ‘global governance is an attempt to manipulate the forces of globalisation, mitigate globalisation’s negative effects’ due to globalisation is the is an exogenously given factor that does not automatically lead to global governance in the same way that anarchy in the international system does not necessary lead to cooperation among state.(ibid; 23).Therefore the existing globally problem namely, international crime, and environmental changes, HIV/Aids and adaptive mutation, international migrations, all these problems requires global rules and global actors. Hence the successful of this process needs correlation from different actors. Whitman (2009:12) accepts that, ‘different actors states most prominently; international law and organisation; regional organisations; the scientific and medical communities; and non-governmental and commercial organisation’. Conversely, people’s participation from different levels is very is very crucial in order to solve social, economic and political problem, in pursuing globally development.
Why the need for Global Governance:
As it mentioned above the meaning of global governance has become broader. Global governance can accelerates the pace of process of globalisation by using international institutions link with social economic and political field. Halabi (2004:24) agreed that, ‘global governance is an attempt to administer globalization and resolve dispute between states so that developing as well as developed countries can purse wealth under constructed structure of their own choice’. In this regards, it is argue that, the existing internationally problems needs globally interferences rather than individual state action, in different level Individual states can empower the international actors to address the existing challenges. Indeed, Whitman (2009:1) accepts that ‘HIV/AIDS pandemic; climate change; criminal and terrorist network and nuclear weapons these are regarding as global crises which require global attention rather individual states.
Since 1980s the concept of global environmental and climate changes is considered as one among the policy of global governance, due to its effects and challenges resulting from on it. In addition Halabi (2004:24) argue that, ‘environmental changes such as global warming have occurred as a result of excessive utilization of resources and pollution’. In this regards, global environmental change has been the result of technological and industrial developments which poses threat to leaves world. In other words, the effects of climate change is increasing the destruction of productive area, and causing and hazards around the world by increasing carbon dioxide, emission of sea production and other natural resources.
As a tool and instrument, global governance it enhances representativeness of political processes, regulations and accountability by different actors like UN (United Nations) Human Right Institutions, ICC (international Court of Criminal) Security Council and civil society by monitoring and evaluating international security, and fighting different crimes international crime such as terrorism , and development nuclear weapons and sale of small arms which have led to increased is conflicts, genocide and other effects in different part of the world. As Mehta(2007:01) point out, ‘the world security situation is more dangerous now that during the cold war, there are continuous violence in Iraq, and Afghanistan, tension of looming attack on Iran and terrorist organisation acquiring nuclear weapons’. In other word, without security council and UN to impose global rule which will governed and save the people especially vulnerable and innocent and group including women and children. Consequently, will be devastating also both developing and developed countries continue to spend more budgets in military rather then in social and development programmes which has negative consequences in society. Global Governance is needed to reverse these trends.
Many writers have argued that global trade is one area in which a global solution is needed. At currently, the main regulator of international trade World Trade Organisation (WTO). However, this institution is being criticized for favouring the developed world and rather discriminating against developing countries in terms of its policies and practices such as subsidies and fair trade in the global market. Whitman(2009:2) notes that, ‘global trade is regulated by international and agreements, most notably the WTO, these regulations are problematic in practical ways and are a certainly highly contentious in political terms, but trade is a dynamic features of way of life, not problem that can be solved’. As a matter of fact, there is a big gap between developing countries and industrial countries which constrains trade between them. Developing countries are still facing implementation problems of the regulations including high tariffs, productivity, and production function and income distribution.
This essay has assessed the need for global governance to find out why should now we speak of global solution in international political economy field. Global governance as process linking with globalisation, it speed up solving globally problem, international regulation of laws and enhance development around the world, It is still is debatable process, relation of development particular in developing countries
However, it is still is a debatable process, particularly in relation to development in developing countries. There are different challenges which are facing the process and practice of global governance. These challenges are:
Firstly, the main challenge is domination of actors in implementation of this process. It is still confusing and it is believed that, the concept global means only dominants of powerful actors like G8 and G20. According to Mehta, (2007:4), ‘the G8 (France, United Kingdom, Germany, USA, Japan, Italy, Canada and Russian), initially concentrating on economic matters are now in a sense representative of world community, and yet playing a powerful role in guiding the response to international challenges. This indicates that, in economic point of view, G8 as the powerful act as one institution regulates and guide world economic procedures. Hence the correlation between global governance and the poor and rich countries is to large extent, less comprehensible due to existing hierarchy of dominant and subordinate states.
On the hand, the existence of unilateral power is one among the constraints for implementing global governance. The question is ‘global governance, of, by and for whom?’ Whitman, (2009; 1). The unilateral mode is being led by powerful States only Besides including Security Council solution. Mehta (2007:3) state that, ‘The US, under the guise of finding weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in Iraq, led a unilateral invasion on the country without an explicit security Council authority’
To sum up, this paper has argued that, there is the need for global solution as perspective of international relation discipline, from a certain point of view, the existing situation of the global solving problem it remain is unsatisfactory to provide the clear picture of the meaning of global governance. Hence there is further need for international agencies and individual states to take purposeful actions to generate responsiveness on informing the meaning of global governance and how it can be implemented. Not only that changing of mind of people, states, civil societies and other actors about the fact that existing international problems can only be solved by global institutions it is also important to recognise that no individual or state can solve its problems entirely without interaction between different partners.
Also, the essay has established that the practice of the processes of global governance today has biases between the dominant and subordinate states in different areas such as international trade, security, and finance, and democracy; hence the urgent need for all actors to work together in order to reduce challenges which hinder implementation of global governance processes.
Furthermore, there is the need to the global community to minimize if not completely subdue unilateral rule in the implementation of global governance, processes since this rather creates physical and structural violence resulting in negative effects on vulnerable groups, including women and children.
Finally, there is the urgent tasks of international agencies including ILO, World Bank, IMF, WTO, UN, civil societies, and individual states to work in a coordinated manner to help developing countries meet all the MDG’s goals and ensure peace, protection for human rights and reduction of climate change impacts at national, regional and international levels Global governance thus have an important role in ensuring this happen in addition to creating a peaceful nuclear free global community.