Review Of Freestyle Swimming Physical Education Essay

Freestyle is the fastest of the four competitive swimming strokes, and is probably the stroke that most people are familiar with. The athlete swims freestyle in the prone (face down) position, propelling himself with the arms, which pull in an alternating pattern, accompanied by a flutter kick. (Riewald 2003).Athletes and coaches have a strong desire to be the best in competitive swimming. Over the years, researchers have been recruited to study, examine and research training methods that will lead to enhancement in swimming performance. Not surprisingly, various area of swimming and many considerations had been examined. Those studies are in energy system, technical proficiency and training volume.

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In swimming, technique is of utmost importance to performance. Efficiency in the process of movement, whether stroking through the water, lifting weights or swinging a club relates to the improvement in performance and a decrease in chance of injury. However, to swim faster, swimmer cannot simply focus on the time they want to swim. Instead, swimmer need to work on improving the technique and physiological capacity (Riewald 2003)

Generally, swimming performance is determined by the swimmer’s physiology (capacity for energy output, metabolic processes), morphology, neuromuscular properties and psychological profile (Toussaint and Beek 1992). Performance in swimming requires the full deployment of all powers a swimmer process. The development of those power require years of hard training. (Toussaint 2007) Several factors determinants performance includes drag, propulsion technique and mechanical power (Toussaint and Truijens 2005). Swimming fast will depend on the ability to produce a high mechanical power output enabling the generation of high propulsive forces, the ability to produce drag, while keeping power losses to pushed away water low (swimming with a high propulsive efficiency).

Essential performance is determining factors in free style swimming can be analyzed within a biomechanical framework, in reference to the physiological basis of performance. These factors include: active drag forces, effective propulsive forces, propelling efficiency and power output. The success of the swimmer is determined by the ability to generate propulsive force, while reducing the resistance to forward motion. (Toussaint and Beek 1992)

Dynamic strength is an important determinant of swimming performance. Studies have found that muscular strength and power output correlate highly with swim velocity over distances ranging from 23 to 400m. Also, swim and swim-specific resistance training (e.g. bio-kinetic swim bench training, reverse current hydro channel swimming and in-water devices that the athlete push off from while swimming) improves a competitive swimmer’s velocity in events up to 200m. This training can result in improved stroke mechanics, such as stroke force and distance per stroke. Research tends to conclude that mechanics may be more important in determining velocity and swim success than upper body strength. (Tanaka and Swensen 1998)

Powers and Howley (2007) stated that power is the result combination of force and time or the ability to produce force rapidly. Logically, swimming time can be decreased if swimmer can apply more force in the water (fast rate of 85% or more). In becomes important to determine the ways in which force and speed can be improved in an efficient manner since force and speed define power.

Swimming power especially lower body strength has been demonstrated to be crucial to success in sprint swimming. 80% of one’s performance in a 25-m front crawl sprint result from the swimmer’s strength component is less. At 100,200 and 400m, the contribution of muscular strength drops to 74, 72 and 58%, respectively. During slow, low-intensity swimming most of the muscle force is generated by slow twitch fibers. As the muscle tension requirements increase, the fast twitch fibers are incorporated. In sprint events (50-200m) demanding maximal strength, the second group of fast fibers sets in. The tendency is that the swimmers have higher percentage of slow twitch muscle fibers in their shoulder and particularly muscular deltoid. However, muscle fiber composition appears not to be a deciding factor in successful competition. Swimming is performed almost totally with concentric contractions (Costill, Maglischo and Richarson 1992)

The effective way to increase power in competitive swimmers is through dry land training (Magill 2007). Magill 2007 reported that increase in power results from increase in maximal strength and nervous system recruitment through weight training. Further, it is also believed that to compliment resistance exercise in weight training is because of the components of power. Speed and strength are the components of power (Powers & Howley 2007).

Problem Statement

The relationship between swimming power and swimming performance has been established. Therefore, with this relationship, in becomes necessary to study and search the most efficient means to increase power. This can be done by performing specific swimming exercise in land, which is through strength training and through plyometric training. It is believed that plyometric training and weight training can benefit the swimming performance of male competitive swimmers. This is predicting to occur due to the noticeable increase in muscular strength and power. The increase in power should improve the reaction time and improvements in stabilization that can directly enhance the swimming performance.

Purpose of the Study

To acquire data on the relationship of speed and power in swim performance based on two component which are leg speed and leg power with fitness testing since previous study that investigate the relationship of speed and power in swim performance only focus on the upper body of the swimmers.


This study is concerned with the examination of the correlation study in swimming performance test results with fitness testing among adolescent age 17 to 18 years old. Based on the statement of the problem and the background of the study, the following below are the objective of the study:

To identify strength of relationship between leg power and swimming performance of male adolescent swimmers.

To identify the significance of relation between leg power and leg strength that will influence the swimming performance.

To evaluate the efficacy of speed in improving swimming performance based on 10m flatter kick test performance among male adolescent swimmers.

To evaluate the efficacy of strength in improving swimming performance based on wall squat test performance among male adolescent swimmers.


The result of this study is restricted to a number of delimitations:

Participants will be only male participants.

Participants aged in the range of 17-18 years old.

Using 10-m sprint test suggested by Delextrat & Cohen (2008).

No motivational factors influence the participants during the test.

The data will be analyzed individually.

This study also due to the restrictions imposed by time and cost.


The result of this study is restricted to a number of limitations:

Participants mortality

Differences in body composition of the participants may affect the testing result.

Injury prior to the test.

1.7 Research Assumption

All the test selection is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluation.

All participants that will participate in this study meet the requirements.

The participants understood about the procedure and direction of the test

All participants having the same fitness level.


The hypotheses of this study are as follows:

There is no significance difference in 10m flatter kick of swim performance on male adolescent swimmers.

There is no significance difference in vertical jump of power performance on male adolescent swimmers.

There is no significant difference in wall squat of strength performance on male adolescent swimmers.

There is no significance difference in relationship of leg power and swim performance on male adolescent swimmers.

Justification of Research

This study is attempted that if dry land exercise is performed by manner which is specific to the competitive swimming, it will be an improvement in swimming performance due to the increasing power of an individual. The positive outcome in developing speed is mainly from the applied form of dry land training.

Significant of Study

This study tries to investigate whether there is a relationship between speed and power on swimming performance. The result of this study will help to serve a useful guide to coaches, teachers, and parents and also the administration incorporate to improve their athlete’ performance in sports.

This research study hoped to demonstrate that the relationship between speed and power on swimming performance will develop future planning for swimming training that will emphasize more on important fitness components. It also will helps to design and make a variation of training program that will increase interest of this sport and improve their swim performance. This study hopes to develop and improve the level of physical fitness among young participant. Besides that, it also helps the swimming academy to produce and identified a young talent for sports. It also helps to design and make a variation of training program to increase the athlete’s interest to improve their fitness level and participating in sports.

Operational Term

Club Swimmers- A social club sport for swimmers of all abilities.

Dry land training – Is a form of strength training.

Speed – The ability to move from one point to another in a straight line as minimum time as possible as being tested with 10-m sprint test.

Strength – Ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert force against a resistance as being evaluated using wall squat.

Power – The product of force and velocity as being tested with standing vertical jump.

Swimming Performance -Tendency to infer one’s ability through self-evaluation processes.