Physical Demands In Handball Physical Education Essay

Indian physical education has covered a long distance from ancient to modern period, during this period it has faced so many problems.1 In ancient time Indian games and sports were very much concerned about the development of the physique and for the art of offence and defense. The games were also considered for the kind of recreation, which played a vital role in the development of a man’s personality. Games and sports, music, fishing, boating, singing dancing and water sports, had played important role in the life of human being.2

Physical Demands in Handball

Handball is an Olympic sport played professionally in many countries. In spite of professionalization, this game need to scientific information to increased handball players performance. This can be due to many reasons, one of them is that most of the research which has been conducted in this field has been published in Eastern European countries and is not readily accessible to the sport science community. Another reason can be attributed to the conservative approach of most coaches towards physical conditioning for handball players.

Modem handball is a fast game, characterized by incredible athletic performances by athletes. In fact, modern handball players are able to perform many different moves like jumping, running, change of directions and technical movements in very short time and with an order determined by the tactical situation. Players run with and without the ball, in line and with different paths, jumping, throwing, passing and receiving in motion or during flight represent the technical characteristics of a modem top handball player. Then, to excel at the highest levels, it is important that training methodologies are developed on simple basis specificity. The closer to the demands of the performance, the better the training is. To obey to the law of specificity we have to know exactly what are the physiological demands of handball performance.

Research in Handball

Handball matches have duration of 60 minutes divided in two halves lasting 30 minutes each. During this time players cover a total distance ranging from 2000 to 6000 meters, based upon different situations position on the field, tactical defensive and offensive characteristics of the team and characteristics of the game itself and so far and so forth. In a work presented by Cuesta (1988) handball players of the Spanish national team have shown to cover the following distances based upon playing position Left wing-3557 meters, Right wing-4083 meters, Left back-3464 meters, Right back-2857 meters, Pivot player- 3531 meters. The above-mentioned distances are close to the ones recorded in Konzak & Schake (in Cuesta, 1988) related to DDR players. In a study conducted in Italy with a specific apparatus Play Controller, (Phromos, Perugia) 5000 meters were covered by a right wing during an official match of the Italian Second league.

It is important to affirm the total displacement of players on the field is affected by many different parameters. Tactical disposition, position on the field, characteristics of the match itself, are all factors which in some way can affect the amount of space covered by the players on the field. However, what is important to say is that handball players cover the total distance alternating high-intensity actions (sprinting, fast direction changes, jumping) with game phases characterized by relatively low metabolic demands due to the low intensity of the actions. It can be said then that the metabolic demands of modern handball involve the aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways. As a supportive evidence, Konzak and Schacke (in Cuesta, 1988), have shown that, during a Handball match, players perform 190 rhythm variations, 279 change of direction and 16 jumps. Then, based upon what these authors say, a handball player performs a total 485 high-intensity movements in 60 minutes and average of 8 per minute, above results show that handball players require lot of physical capacity during match situation.

Necessity of Assessment in Handball

Team handball is a complex sport, which requires players to have well developed aerobic and anaerobic capacities Motor ability such as a sprinting, jumping, flexibility and throwing velocity represent physical activities are considered as important aspects of the game and contribute to the high performance of the team. Successful performance requires explosive power of the leg and arms, sprinting velocity and kinaesthetic feeling in ball control. On the other hand in a modern time handball players model specific anthropometric characteristics play a supportive role in helping better performance of athlete’s under the actual competitive condition. Specifically, body, height, body mass, palm span and palm length are important in improving athletes performance and are considered as basic criterion for athletes selection in various playing position. Specific skills also considered as the fundamental and important aspects of the game. “First consideration in the training programme in handball must be given to skill”.3

AAHPER, one of the well known institute regarding health, physical education and recreation in America also made survey about skill test and norms. Skill test and norms always help the players to evaluate their performance in the game and to provide an impetus to improvements. Need of evaluation of Handball players.4

Need of evaluation of Handball Players

As compare to other games handball is most popular and fastest game in the world. It needs good physical structure, physical fitness and skill. For handball game it is quite difficult to evaluate the player because coach, selection committee, physical education teachers have to consider the above aspects. Evaluation of the players is the important process for teaching and coaching, through evaluation, a coach, selection committee members, physical educator and players know the draw backs of their games. At the time of evaluation coach advice players to improve the draw backs in their games. Hence, the coach, selection committee member and players must be aware of some evaluation techniques, which enable him to measure the fitness and skill objectively and classify them initially as well as by measuring the progress made by them.

Handball players require good physical fitness, good body structure and good fundamental skill of handball for top performance in handball.5 Evaluation of sportsman is a must to identify their area of weaknesses and designed training model for improving specific athlete deficiencies. It also helps to follow the athlete improvement during training and game session. There are various tests for physical activities and games which help to measure the playing abilities of the players in different games. The test helps the players to evaluate their performance, predict future performance, indicate weakness, place the athlete in appropriate training programme or training group, motivate the athlete and to provide an incentive for improvement. The tests also help the trainers, coaches, selection committee to measure player’s performance and to evaluate their own coaching procedure and programme. These, tests should be used For the selection process, but unfortunately at the time of selection, selection committee only consider performance of the player on the basis of single game situation as a selection criterion. Unavailability of proper norms for selection of senior handball players in Maharashtra and in India is one of the main the reason of it. So the researcher has decided to conduct the study entitled “Reforms in the Norms of Selection procedure for Maharashtra State Senior Level Male Players in Handball Game”

1.1. History of Handball
Ancient History

Game including the hand and a ball looks back on a unbelievably long tradition. Even if the rules and the way of playing were hardly in line with today’s handball, the “Urania game” played by the Greek which had already been mentioned in Homer’s “Odyssey” or “Harpaston” played by the Romans – described by Claudius Galenus (AD 110 – 200) among others – may definitely be characterized as prototype of today’s handball. Such precursors also existed in today’s Central Europe. Minnesingers Walther von der Vogelweide (1170 – 1230) sang about a, catch ball game, whereas in the 16th century, the Frank Rabelais described a kind of game in which the hands were used for playing the ball. Another game similar to handball was played by Greenland’s Intuits at the end of the 18th century. The actual beginnings of the game of handball didn’t develop until the end of the 19th century. A corresponding game was held in Nyborg (Denmark) in 1897. From that point on, fixed rules for ball games played between teams emerged. Games such as “Treibball” played against or over a border (“Grenzball” or “Raffball”, “Konigsberger Ball”) were well-known. Moreover, there were games towards baskets or against nets (German netball, nevjall. Turmball ), and later on games towards goals without ball control. Players were not allowed to run with the ball and to hold it longer than three seconds (Handball 1906 in Sweden, “Neuer Raffball”, “Torball”). Further development included games towards goals with ball control. In this case, players were allowed to run three steps with the ball or to hold it for three seconds. A kind of game from the Czech Republic was called “Hazena”, a form of field handball which already included the division of the playing field into three parts characterizing field handball. However, countries such as Denmark, Germany and Sweden are considered as the real handball pioneers of modern times.6

Modern Development

Field handball was pushed by German gymnastics teacher so that, alongside handball, it became popular as an alternative to football, especially for women. In 1917, Max Heiser formulated the first official handball rules for women. Two years later, Karl Schelenz added the rules for the men. In the 20s, handball became a national sport.

On the occasion of a meeting in The Hague (Netherlands) in 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation appointed a commission for the elaboration of international playing rules for field handball. In 1928, the International Amateur Handball Federation (IAHF) was founded in Amsterdam on the occasion of the IX Olympic Games. One of the foundation members was Avery Brundage (USA) who later became IOC President in 1933; handball was included in the Olympic Programme. At the XI Olympic Games in Berlin, host Germany won the final and therefore the gold medal in the pouring rain in front of an audience of 100.000 people, beating Austria 10:6. One year after the end of World War II, representatives of eight nations met in Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, and launched the International Handball Federation (IHF). It is considered founded on 11 July 1946. The nations; involved in the foundation are Denmark, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland. In 1960, the last Women’s Outdoor World Championship was played whereas the last Men’s Outdoor World Championship took place in 1996. At the XXXII Congress in Cairo, which has been the last official one so far, 167 member federations were counted. By now, handball is being played in 183 countries and the number of team’s amounts to approximately 800,000.

1.2. History of Asian Handball Federation

The march of the Asian Handball Federation had began when the Martyr Shaikh Fahad Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah head of the Kuwaiti delegation to the seventh Asian games, Tehran – Iran – 1974, presented a motion to the Executive Committee of the Asian Gamess requesting recognition of the handball game and also formation of the Asian Handball Federation. Consequently, in 1976, Handball Federations from all over Asia were invited to attend the establishment meeting during which representatives from fourteen Asian countries. Since its establishment in year 1974, AHF activities have been progressively expanding as its strategy has been focused on development and expansion of the handball game in the Asian continent. AHF members have been also actively involved in the remarkable achievements throughout the way.7

Table 1.1
Result of Asian Handball Championship
Sr. No
Year
Host Country
Gold
Silver
Bronze

1

1977

Kuwait

Japan

Korea

China

2

1979

China

Japan

China

Kuwait

3

1983

Korea

Korea

Japan

Kuwait

4

1987

Jordan

Korea

Japan

Kuwait

5

1989

China

Korea

Japan

Kuwait

6

1991

Japan

Korea

Japan

China

7

1993

Bahrain

Korea

Kuwait

Japan

8

1995

Kuwait

Kuwait

Korea

Bahrain

9

2000

Japan

Korea

China

Japan

10

2002

Iran

Kuwait

Qatar

Saudi- Arabia

11

2004

Qatar

Kuwait

Japan

Qatar

12

2006

Thailand

Kuwait

Korea

Qatar

11

2008

Iran

Korea

Kuwait

Saudi- Arabia

14

2010

Lebanon

Korea

Bahrain

Japan

15

2012

Jeddah

Proposed

1.3. World Championship

In 1938, the first Indoor Handball World Championship was played in the Deutschlandhalle in Berlin. This first Tournament was held with only four participating teams. The first field handball WC was held in July of the same year in Berlin and other German cities, which was also won by Germany who were then Olympic champions (in 1936) and dual world champions. Both WC tournaments were administered by the IAHF (International Amateur Handball Federation), the forerunner organization of 1946 founded IHF, which was founded in 1928, and meant to be celebrational events for the l0th “birthday” of the Organization.

The first World Championship took place in Germany in 1938, involving four teams from Europe. Throughout their history, the World Championships has been dominated by European teams any medals have yet to be won by non-Europeans.8

Table 1.2
Result of Handball World Championships
Sr. No.
Year
Host Country
Gold
Silver
Bronze

1

1938

Germany

Germany

Austria

Sweden

2

1954

Sweden

Sweden

West Germany

Czechoslovakia

3

1958

East Germany

Sweden

Czechoslovakia

Germany

4

1961

West Germany

Romania

Czechoslovakia

Sweden

5

1964

Czechoslovakia

Romania

Sweden

Czechoslovakia

6

1967

Sweden

Czechoslovakia

Denmark

Romania

7

1978

Denmark

West Germany

Soviet Union

East Germany

8

1982

West Germany

Soviet Union

Yugoslavia

Poland

9

1986

Switzerland

Yugoslavia

Hungary

East Germany

10

1990

Czechoslovakia

Sweden

Soviet Union

Romania

11

1993

Sweden

Russia

France

Sweden

12

1995

Iceland

France

Croatia

Sweden

11

1997

Japan

Russia

Sweden

France

14

1999

Egypt

Sweden

Russia

Yugoslavia

15

2001

France

France

Sweden

Yugoslavia

16

2003

Portugal

Croatia

Germany

France

17

2005

Tunisia

Spain

Croatia

France

18

2007

Germany

Germany

Poland

Denmark

19

2009

Croatia

France

Croatia

Poland

20

2011

Sweden

France

Denmark

Spain

21

2011

Spain

Proposed

1.4. Handball in Olympics

After 1936, field handball was no longer played at the games; Indoor handball was presented for the first time at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.

The introduction of women’s handball to the Games took place in 1976 in Montreal. The Soviet Union won this first women’s Olympic competition, taking home two gold medals after the 11-team men’s competition and the six-team women’s one.9

Table 1.3
Result of Handball Olympics Championships
Sr.
No.
Year
Host Country
Gold
Silver
Bronze

1

1936

Berlin

Germany

Austria

Switzerland

2

1948-1968 Not include in Olympic programme

3

1972

Munich

Yugoslavia

Czechoslovakia

Romania

4

1976

Montreal

Soviet Union

Romania

Poland

5

1980

Moscow

East Germany

Soviet Union

Romania

6

1984

Los Angeles

Yugoslavia

West Germany

Romania

7

1988

Seoul

Soviet Union

South Korea

Yugoslavia

8

1992

Barcelona

Unified Team

Sweden

Spine

9

1996

Atlanta

Croatia

Sweden

France

10

2000

Sydney

Russia

Sweden

Spain

11

2004

Athens

Croatia

Germany

Russia

12

2008

Beijing

France

Iceland

Spain

13

2012

London

France

Sweden

Croatia

1.5. History of Handball in India

In India, handball has become famous among other sports played at Schools, colleges, university, clubs and professionally. It is world second fastest game and always considered as a high fitness, perception, speed, timing, accuracy and agility. With its rules and regulation and playing set up is being popularly played in India. It is a devoting and challenging game. Indian athletes also represent National and International competitions in this game but lake of scientific Training, Knowledge, dirty politics, quota system research based information the results of handball players are very poor in international area. Handball entered India in early seventies with filed version (11 a side) outdoor game and Indian handball federation was formed in 1971, with 16 states as its units was played in its infant days in India, first senior national championship held at Haryana (Rohatak). Soon it spread all over the country but state like Punjab, Haryana, Jammu-Kashmir, A.P and Maharashtra have edge over other states as far as standards and popularity of handball in India, On date IHF 33 units (States, Boards, Steel Plants and Railways) Punjab Police, Services C.I.C.F, C.R.P.F Professional team which dominated handball Scene the country.

The place of this game in Asian was given in 1982 which was held in India at Delhi. This game was included all India-Inter University in 1979-80 and first All India Inter University held at Nagpur, Nagpur university won the Gold Medal, Silver Medal was won by Punjab, Bronze Medal was won by Osmania and Kurukshetra University got fourth place in men section. Women section Nagpur University P.A.U. University and Bombay University were bagged Gold, Silver and Bronze accordingly. Handball was included is a National games. Services, Punjab, Haryana, Jammu-Kashmir, Kerala, A.P and Maharashtra these states have given many International players to India. Indian team has participated at various international tournaments. Out of which India could win Second youth commonwealth handball championship held at Dhaka in 1995 after being runner up in 1990 at New Delhi, youth team also got second Place in 1997 commonwealth youth handball championship held at Edinburgh U.K. Apart from participation of India team some in club teams like Services, Punjab police, SAI, Gujarat and National Handball academy club participate in championship held at Malaysia, South Africa and Cochin. Services Handball team participated in world military Games. Punjab Police team remained runners up in South Africa. After infusion of handball events in police arena, it has generated more competition in national and state championships. Presently services team is the senior national champion. Similarly handball was introduced Maharashtra in 1972 at Nagpur and first handball state championship held at Nagpur. Since handball is most popular team game in Maharashtra and provides many quality International players. Presently Pune District team was champion of State Championship.10

Table 1.4
Result of Handball National Championships
Sr. No.
Year
Host Country
Gold
Silver
Bronze

1.

1972

Rothak

Haryana

A.P.

2.

1973

Hyderabad

A.P.

U.P.

3.

1973

Pune

Punjab

Bihar

J & K

4.

1975

Bangalore

Bihar

A.P.

J & K

5.

1976

Jamshedpur

I.A.F.

Bihar

6.

1977

Nizamabad

I.A.F.

Bihar

7.

1978

Shrinagar

I.A.F.

J & K

8.

1979

Hyderabad

I.A.F.

A.P.

9.

1979

Ludhiana

I.A.F.

Maharashtra

J & K

10.

1980

Jammu

I.A.F.

Maharashtra

11.

1981

Hyderabad

I.A.F.

J & K

12.

1982

Delhi

I.A.F.

Maharashtra

A.P.

13.

1983

Wardha

14.

1985

Quilon

I.A.F.

A.P.

Punjab

15.

1986

Bhadreswar

Services

Maharashtra

J & K

16.

1986

Bilaspur

Services

Steel Plants

Punjab

17.

1987

J & K

Services

Steel Plant

Punjab

18.

1988

Jaipur

Services

Steel Plant

Haryana

19.

1990

Hissar

J & K

Services

Haryana

20.

1991

Bhilai

Services

Steel Plant

Punjab

21.

1992

Shimoga

Services

Steel Plant

J & K

22.

1992

Bilaspur

Services

Steel Plant

J & K

23.

1993

Ludhiana

24.

1994

Lucknow

Services

Steel Plant

U.P.

25.

1994

Jamshedpur

Services

Karnataka

Punjab

26.

1995

Warangal

Services

Punjab

Steel Plant

27.

1996

Nagpur

Services

Punjab

Steel Plant

28.

1997

Jallandar

29.

1997

Trivandrum

Services

Steel Plant

Punjab

30.

1998

Vijayawada

Services

M.P.

J & K

31.

1999

Pune

Services

Rajasthan

M.P.

32.

2000

Calicut

33.

2001

Bhilai

M.P.

Services

Punjab

34.

2002

Jammu

J & K

Chhattisgarh

Services

35.

2003

Bhilai

Chhattisgarh

Rajasthan

Services

36.

2004

Renikot

Punjab

Chhattisgarh

Services

37.

2004

Jamshedpur

Jharkhand

SSCB

Chhattisgarh

38.

2005

Bhilai

Chhattisgarh

Kerala

Punjab

39.

2006

Ludhiana

Punjab

SSCB

Chhattisgarh

40.

2007

Bilaspur

Punjab

SSCB

Chhattisgarh

41.

2008

Bangalore

SSCB

Chhattisgarh

Punjab

42.

2009

Vishakhapatnam

SSCB

Punjab

Chhattisgarh

43.

2010

Kolkata

Chhattisgarh

SSCB

Punjab

44.

2011

Indore

SSCB

Punjab

Delhi

1.6. Statement of the Problems

On the basis of overall observations, experience and general discussions which have been made with experts, referees, national and international players and reviewing of literature on the same theme, it is opined that there is an essential need to frame standard criteria for the selection of efficient and suitable players for handball game to be played at state or national level. Accordingly the present researcher has designed the following statement of problems:

1) Selection of players only on the basis of individual performance in a particular match is not always desirable.

2) In the selection process, basic motor qualities and skills are the most important factors to be considered in order to improve overall performance of the team in the long run.

3) There is no any criterion devised on the date for senior handball players in Maharashtra to provide guidelines for selection of suitable players.

1.7. Significance of the study

There are an only a few research studies that have been conducted on this direction in India. Hence, as a serious dearth of research on it, the present study is an immense important to handball coaches, trainer and physical education teachers for making effective coaching and training as well as framing strategies for selecting suitable handball players in a team. It will be proved so fruitful to the selection committees to assess and evaluate the individual performance of handball players to use them for state, national level handball teams.

The study may also provide an opportunity and encouragement to the sports talent to go through the standard norms and criteria for their practice in order to enhance their performance for getting selection in state, national team.

Besides, the study is to provide an opportunity to research fellow to conduct further research in new dimension in the competitive arena.

1.8. Objectives of the study

1. To identify the performance variables of team handball.

2. To measure selected Morphological, Physical Fitness components and

Handball skills.

3. To develop the Norms for Senior handball State level players.

4. To design grading scales for Senior handball State level players.

5. To find out Physical Fitness and Skill status of senior handball players on the basis of developed norms.

1.9. Hypotheses

1. The subjects have performed the fitness and skill test truthfully and with full capacity.

2. The subjects are medically, physically and psychologically fit for tests conducted by the researcher.

3. Maharashtra State Handball Association will permit to conduct the test on the subjects.

1.10. Delimitation of the study

1. This study is restricted to male senior handball players only.

2. This study measures the results of selected morphological, physical fitness and skills only.

3. The study geographical restricted to the Maharashtra state only.

1.11. Limitations of the study

1. The subjects covered under the study from various districts and regions of Maharashtra states having different economical status, diet and training. These are highly impossible to control, hence are limitation to study.

2. Heredity and environmental background of subjects may affect their performance in matches and they have not been controlled. .

1.12. Definitions

In order to clarify the further discussion in the study, the following terms have adopted.

Norms 11

Norms are performance standards based on analysis of scores. They are developed by collecting scores for a large number of individuals of the same gender and similar age, experience, ability and other such characteristics. Norms may be developed at the National, state or local level. Percentile, T-scores and Z-scores are forms of norms.

Pcrcentile12

For the current study the percentile refers to a point in a distribution of scores below which a given percentage of the scores fall.

Morphology13

It is a systematic study of external structure and form.

Standing Height14

It is the maximum height of the individual when standing erect on a horizontal surface with his head and face in Frankfurt horizontal plane. It is the straight height of the subject (bare-footed) up to the point vertex. It is generally in meters nearest to half of the centimetre.

Body weight15

Weight of the nude human body with empty bowels, is known as a body weight. It is measured by the help of weighing machine, is recorded in kilogram nearest to half of kilogram.

Physical fitness16

It is the optimum ability to excel in physical strength, stamina and suppleness with respect to status, development and maintenance (SDM). Physical fitness has also defined as one’s capacity to perform routine tasks with ease without any fatigue having sufficient extra energy for leisure time activities (WHO)

Muscular Strength17

Muscular strength may be defined as the maximal muscular force or tension used in the creation or prevention of the movement in one maximal effort of a muscle group.

Muscular Endurance18