Pearson Correlation Investigate The Relationship Between Variable Physical Education Essay

This chapter discusses the results from data collected and analyzed by researcher. Data collected were analyzed and interpreted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 17.0) software. This chapter will discuss about subject’s age, VO2max, VO2, HR, and RPE. This will use descriptive statistic to interpret the data. This chapter also will test the hypothesis constructed by researcher by using Pearson Correlation to investigate the relationship exist between those variables.

4.1 HYPOTHYESIS

4.1.1 H0 : There is no significant between VO2max and HR among athlete.

H1 : There is significant between VO2max and HR among athlete.

4.1.2 H0 : There is no correlation between RPE and HR among athlete.

H1 : There is correlation between RPE and HR among athlete.

4.1.3 H0 : There is no correlation between VO2max and RPE.

H1 : There is correlation between VO2max and RPE.

4.2 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS

As showed at table 1, number of subjects in this test is 21 and their age are between 20-30 years old with mean 23.24 ± 1.868 years. Subjects VO2max are ranged from 34-69 ml.kg.min with mean 52.33 ± 7.716 ml.kg.min. Heart rate result show ranged from 173-200 bpm with mean 187.67 ± 7.220 bpm. Rating of perceived exertion scale score result show ranged from 3-10 RPE with mean 7.24 ± 2.119 RPE. VO2 result show ranged from 2.512-4.290 l.min with mean 3.435 ± 0.476 l.min. Respiratory exchange ratio result show ranged from 0.96-1.21 with mean 1.09 ± 0.066. For subjects body mass index result show ranged 18-33 with mean 22.90 ± 3.330. Lastly, for sbujects physical activity show a result ranged from 1-4 with mean 3.24 ± 1.091.

Table 1. Subjects Descriptive Statistics

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

AGE

VO2max

HR

RPE

VO2

RER

BMI

Physical Activity

21

21

21

21

21

21

21

21

20

34

173

3

2.512

.96

18

1

30

69

200

10

4.290

1.21

33

4

23.24

52.33

187.67

7.24

3.435

1.09

22.90

3.24

1.868

7.716

7.220

2.119

0.476

0.066

3.330

1.091

4.3 RELATIONSHIP GRAPH

Figure 1 to 20 below show the relationship between all variables for subjects in Bruce Protocol test.

Figure 1. VO2max and VO2 Figure 2. VO2max and HR

Figure 3. VO2max and RER Figure 4. VO2max and RPE

Figure 5. RPE and HR Figure 6. RPE and VO2

Figure 7. Physical activity and VO2max Figure 8. Physical activity and RER

4.4 CORRELATION

As show at table 2 below, the correlation result for subjects in Bruce Protocol test.

In VO2max, there are no significant correlation between HR with the result of r = .120 and the significant value is p = .605. From the result, VO2max result will have no effect on HR if result score for VO2max are increase or decrease.

For significant correlation VO2max between RPE result, there are no significant with r = .188 and significant value is p = .416. This show, increase in VO2max has no relationship with RPE scale score.

There are significant between VO2max and VO2 with result r = .509 and the significant value is p = .018 which show positive correlation. This show, increase in VO2max might be cause of increase in VO2.

For correlation between VO2max and RER, there are no significant correlation with result r = -.056 and the significant value is p = .810 which show a negative correlation. VO2max has no influence in RER and increase in VO2max has no associated with RER result.

There are significant correlation result between VO2max and physical activity with result r = .459 and significant value is p = .036. The relationship between VO2max and physical activity are positive correlation. Increase in VO2max might be cause of increase in physical activity (hour).

There are no significant relationship between HR and RPE with result r = -.089 and significant value is p = .700. These show a negative correlation between HR and RPE. Increase in HR has no influence in RPE scale score.

In correlation between RPE and VO2, there are no significant correlation result with r = .063 and significant value is p = .785. These show increase in RPE has no relationship with VO2 result.

There are no significant correlation between RER and physical activity result with r = -.256 and significant value is p = .263. These show negative correlation between RER and physical activity. Increase in RER has no relationship with increase in physical activity (hour).

Table 2. Correlation
Correlations

VO2max

VO2

HR

RER

RPE

physical activity

VO2max

Pearson Correlation

1

.509*

.120

-.056

.188

.459*

Sig. (2-tailed)

.018

.605

.810

.416

.036

N

21

21

21

21

21

21

VO2

Pearson Correlation

.509*

1

.332

-.077

.063

.315

Sig. (2-tailed)

.018

.141

.740

.785

.164

N

21

21

21

21

21

21

HR

Pearson Correlation

.120

.332

1

.227

-.089

-.059

Sig. (2-tailed)

.605

.141

.323

.700

.799

N

21

21

21

21

21

21

RER

Pearson Correlation

-.056

-.077

.227

1

.111

-.256

Sig. (2-tailed)

.810

.740

.323

.631

.263

N

21

21

21

21

21

21

RPE

Pearson Correlation

.188

.063

-.089

.111

1

.299

Sig. (2-tailed)

.416

.785

.700

.631

.189

N

21

21

21

21

21

21

physical activity

Pearson Correlation

.459*

.315

-.059

-.256

.299

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.036

.164

.799

.263

.189

N

21

21

21

21

21

21

*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

4.5 DISCUSSION AND FINDING
4.5.1 HR and RPE

For relationship between HR and RPE show a significant different result in David B. James, et al studies which showed in test 1 and test 2, and test 2 and test 3. Studies used only 8 male subjects which are runner athlete and average age of 25 ± 6 years old.

However, present finding show that correlation between HR and RPE has no significant result. Study support by Danielle M.L, et al, showed no significant relationship between RPE and HR with result p = >0.05. Present study show most of subject age at 23 years old and this show their maximal heart rate is 197 beat per minute but most of them did not reach their maximal heart rate and most of them tendency to choose number below than the highest RPE Brog CR-10.

Increase in Heart rate also effect from loss of bodyweight due to dehydration and temperature also can affect on heart rate but in cool temperature our heart rate will slowly increase than in hot temoterature. When our body is at physical stress because of emotional or physical activity, our sympathetic nervous system will release adrenaline into bloodstream and effect of adrenaline to our body is increase in heart rate. When our brain send signal to our body that we need more energy to continue an activity while our body actually at it maximal effort and this make we to choose number below than the highest RPE Brog CR-10.

4.5.2 VO2max and RPE

Study for relationship between VO2max and RPE show linear significant different in post-hoc analyses in VO2 values (%VO2max) and RPE and small significant increase in trial 1 and trial 3 using the classic Brog scale in Roger G. Eston, et al., studies. Takeshi Ueda, et al., studies also show a significant between VO2 value (%VO2max) and RPE in pedaling and running but pedaling result show higher significant than running RPE (F = 15.012, p = <0.01) by using the classic Brog scale.

However, in present finding show no significant between VO2max and RPE which using Brog CR10 scale. In James Faulkner, et al., studies has support this finding when the predicted VO2max and RPE show significant lower in all trials but between predicted and actual VO2max and RPE show no significant different when VO2 value were extrapolated to HR-max predicted.

Most of RPE been using are to compare test result with another test result or to compare it in group. Most of studies that compare VO2max with RPE show no significant result. It might be cause of subject’s that confuse to choose any number on scale cause not all number has word to indicated level of effort that need them to choose. In present study show that most of subjects choose number 8 and 9 to indicated their effort level. This because our brain still giving signal to our somatic nervous system(SNS) to stay longer on treadmill when our bodies are not able to fulfill the order make our decision to choose below than the highest number of Brog scale while our heart rate are at heart rate maximal.

4.5.3 VO2max and HR

Study for relationship between VO2max and HR show a correlation coefficient of 0.912 between increase in VO2max and HR in test 1 and test 2 by David V.B. James, et al. studies used only 8 male subjects which are runner athlete and average age of 25 ± 6 years old.

However, in present finding show that the correlation between VO2max and HR has no significant correlation result (r = .120, p = .605). Study by James Faulkner, ett al, showed there were no significant between actual and predicted VO2max when the VO2 value were extrapolated at HRmax predict p = >0.05. Jennifer C. R, et al study also support that VO2maxhas no significant result with HRmax p = >0.05.

A person with same age doing a same test will have different result of VO2max even through the HR are same it because other factor such as pulmonary system also play some role in affecting VO2max result. Total of oxygen being transport in blood through whole body can affect the VO2max result and intensity of training of a person also can cause an effect on VO2max. Increase in cardiac output and arterial-venous oxygen will increase VO2max because cardiac output is determined by HR and stroke volume.

4.5.4 VO2max and physical activity

Study for relationship between VO2max and physical activity showed that there is positive significant correlation result. These statements were supported by Sigurbjorn A. Arngrimsson, et al., where showed strong linear relationship between VO2max and physical activity which decrease in VO2max also decrease in physical performance for both gender. High relationship between VO2max and physical activity also was support by James Faulkner and Roger Eston, which show VO2max in high fitness for men are better than VO2max for men that have low fitness level.

However, in present finding showed that the correlation between VO2max and physical activity are not strong as previous studies. James Faulkner, et al., showed both high fitness and low fitness in men has no significant different in average correlation using Fisher’s Z transformation procedure.

A person that has physical activity more than 6 hour in a week can’t be said will have greater VO2max than a person has less than 6 hour of physical activity, because it depend on what type of physical activity of person done in a week. A person that spend more than 6 hour a week in weight training program will have different VO2max compare to person training less than 6 hour a week on cardio training program. This is a reason we can’t assume a person that having physical activity less than 6 hour a week will have low score in VO2max than a person having more than6 hour a week on physical activity.