Overview And Analysis Of Overconfidence

Overconfidence has to with presumption and excessive believe in one’s abilities. In as much as people are gifted with various talents and abilities, it is incumbent of people to try and tone down on how they expose these to others as people can be very judgmental. Overconfidence therefore is having a cocksure mentality which is mostly not desirable in the society today.

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I really detest cocky individuals as they have a mentality of knowing-it-all and have a great disregard about other people’s opinions and contributions in day to day events in our lives. In this way most people often shun away these individuals as they are mostly self-centered and egocentric.

Overconfidence can turn tragic if events don’t work out as anticipated and it is therefore advisable not to be so certain about what lies in the realms of the unknown future. It also certainly adds pressure to our lives as we try too hard to achieve and even exceed in things that we do. It therefore leaves us doing our daily activities anchoring the outcome on what people would think of it therefore disregarding the very purpose of simplicity and comfort in life.

Overconfident people are seen to be obnoxious and personally do not attract me very much. Creating an air of self-reliance in thoughts therefore isolates and individual as many tend not associate with people who do not appreciate contributions of others in society. Therefore loosening up and accommodating others makes them feel less intimidated and give them a feeling of playing a role in a team

Overconfidence should therefore generally be discouraged unless it is done with moderation so as not to look unpleasant to others. This is especially in places like job interviews when one has little time to cut a niche for themselves and appear as the most ideal candidates for positions.


This is a tentative proposition that is due to be verified or proven in future. It is a proposition whose approval is subject to investigations, often scientific to either affirm or decline the proposition.

Personally I have often encountered cases that could have divergent but unknown values or results. The most common way in which I have been able to establish the true values is through hypothesis-testing. This involves giving a statement in the affirmation regarding the hypothesis and another nullifying proposition, often known as the null hypothesis. After research and scientific-based investigations, conclusions are made based on the results that would either confirm or negate the hypothesis.

I often feel that hypotheses are a good way of proving scientific theories or untested facts. The hypothesis must always be worded so that it can be able to be tested in your experiment. Do this by often expressing the hypothesis using your selected independent variable (the variable you would be changed during your experiment) and the dependent variable (the variable that is observed-changes in the dependent variable would depend on changes in the independent variable). In fact, in many hypotheses, there are stated exactly as: “If a particular independent variable is changed by a given value, then there is also a subsequent change in a certain dependent variable.”

Hypotheses can sometimes be used to give the wrong analysis of facts. I therefore think that careful scientific backing is mandatory in any of these experiments. In this way, the results are sound and can be proven by any replicated experiment.

Critical thinking

Critical thinking is a high level of looking at issues in a manner that questions the often assumed conclusions and goes a long way in asserting a sense of exploring every possibility in a theory or allegation.

I have always thought of critical thinking as an emancipation of the mind in a way that frees one from the conventional and often made assumptions. Free and independent-mindedness is seminal for critical thinking. It is the only way that people can start to think outside the box and away from the norm. Critical thinking is an intellectually disciplined process which involves use of actively and skillfully applying, conceptualizing, analyzing and evaluating information that has been gathered as a result of experience observation, reflection, reasoning, or even communication. It is based on universally accepted intellectual values that are beyond any subject matter divisions like precision, clarity, consistency, sound evidence relevance or even fairness.

It would entail the close scrutiny of elements of thought or structures implicit in all aspects of reasoning: empirical grounding; purpose concepts reasoning leading to conclusions; implications of conclusions and their consequences; objections from alternative views as well as frame of reference. Critical thinking is being responsive to variable viewpoints in subject matter, purposes and issues. It is incorporated in a class of interwoven modes of thinking, among them- mathematical thinking, scientific thinking, economic thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, moral thinking, as well as philosophical thinking.


Culture is a set of shared pattern or thought that are common in a given society. The underlying culture of a given person is highly likely to affect an individual. Culture is diverse and it is a product of the environmental set up, this is the reason why, different people in different geographical settings embrace different sets of cultures that are almost similar to those of other people in those particular settings.

Each culture has a set of elements that are inherent to that particular culture. In most cultures, language is the key element that determines how different members that belong to that culture communicate. Taboos and norms define what is acceptable within that particular culture.

The various elements as defined in each culture help bringing social harmony, which is basically a state of synchronization between various individuals that co-exist in a given society. Without the existence of culture (and the corresponding values), the likelihood of unnecessary collisions with other members of society is very high.

More often than not, an individual’s culture usually comes into play before making many critical decisions. As a student, more often than not, the decisions I have are to some extent influenced by the different cultures at play-where to learn and the culture of the people there, the various eating cultures of the people, who to interact with and their culture. Most people however, are not very much aware of how culture really affects the short term or long term decisions that they make.


Endorphins chemicals housed in the brain referred to as neurotransmitters. They perform their functions by transmitting signals of an electrical nature in and around the nervous system. The human system has exhibited numerous types’ endorphins, which are manifested in different parts. The pituitary gland is where the endorphins are found, the other place is in some parts of the brain and also, they are well distributed in the nervous system.

Pain and stress are most common factors leading to the release of endorphins. Endorphins are chemicals that are released primarily to ease pain in the body. Endorphins have also been known to produce a euphoric feeling amongst people.

The release of Endorphin varies among individuals. This means that two people exercising at the same level or suffer the same degree of pain may not necessarily produce similar levels of endorphins.

Various activities can be used to increase the levels of endorphin. Studies of acupuncture and massage therapy have shown that exercise can stimulate endorphin secretion.

Change of blindness

Change blindness refers to the fact that the brain, does not envisage the accurate presentation of the world and the surrounding. The brain first scrutinizes the suitability of data before subsequent storage. One would think that, it all has to do with the eyes, but that is not the case. The brain is responsible for everything that the eyes land on. This implies that, it is not possible for the brain to recognize change to any given object, if there is no memory of the object stored in the brain. This explains the reason why the people could not detect any change when the construction workers switched position and clothing.

The attentive nature also contributes to the degree of whether an incidence is stored in the brain or not. If a person is paying close attention to the subject matter, then there is no doubt the brain will be able to store the event and could easily recognize any form of change to the element or object thereof.

In the event that, the person was not paying attention, the incidence in question should be one that is able to distract, the people from whatever they are doing to concentrate on it. The brain deals with different situations on a first come, first serve basis. In order for the brain to have memory of the incident, concentration even for a moment is fundamental.

Whether the brain is able to absorb and store information or even the change of an element, it all depends on state of mind of the person at the time. Busy minds will tend not to notice any changes in the surrounding at all. This is because the mind is occupied. However, idle minds will most certainly see a change in the environment. This is because the brain is not concentrating on any particular element or issue for storage in its memory. However the nature of the event should be able to attract significant attention.

Rapid eye movement

Rapid eye movement is the commonly known as REM sleep is the point of sleep, where there is movement of eyes randomly. Random eye movement is subject to numerous changes in the physiology, in addition to the fact that it is periodical in nature. When we are asleep and not having any dreams our eyes do not record any movements at all. The random movement of eyes is demonstrated when one starts to dream. At this point the activity recorded by the brain bears a close resemblance to that when one is awake.

REM sleep is progressive in nature and will keep up to the pick of the night, when it is assumed that one is at the pick of his or her sleep. As the night drifts towards the end, the intensity of REM sleep increases. However the REM sleep differs significantly depending on the age of the person. This implies that REM sleep is more pronounced in babies than it is experienced by adults. The babies experience REM sleep in most of their sleep. The adults on the other hand experience REM sleep in a very small portion of their sleep.

REM sleep is essential in the preservation of the overall memory in the brain. Despite this, REM sleep is accompanied by irregularity of the rate of the heart, coupled with the fact that, the rate of breathing is irregular. In addition to this, REM results to the improper regulation of the temperature in the body.

REM is not common at all, and the only way one can easily slide to REM sleep is in the event of deprived sleeping hours. The people who have not slept for a while will most certainly drift to REM sleep much faster than those who are in a good condition as regards sleep deprivation.

During REM sleep, it is not the brain only where activity is recorded, rather in numerous other parts of the body. One thing is for sure REM sleep, engages parts of the body as if the person was awake.


A depressant refers to a substance, especially drug that impairs by slowing down the nervous system. The operational effect of these drugs to the central nervous system entails action on the neurons which in turn leads to symptoms that vary significantly from one another. The symptoms experienced are relaxation, dizziness, and death in some extreme instances, to mention but a few. Prior to the manifestation of symptoms, the depressants in addition to reducing brain awareness, have the effect of decreasing the central nervous activities. The differences exhibited by these drugs are extremely wide as regards the harmful and safety effects manifested. There is no doubt; most of these drugs are more often than not harmful coupled with the fact that they are pretty much addictive, however a significant portion of these drugs is also safe and of great importance in the medicine world.

Benzodiazepines, ethyl alcohol and barbiturates are examples of depressants. Barbiturates for instance is used in medicine to manage seizures, however, it is highly addictive. As a result it not commonly used in hospitals. Alcohol on the other hand is no doubt the most common of all. The effects of alcohol are known to all. In this century, alcohol is the most abused, even the minors are no exception to this predicament presented by alcohol. Despite the problems associated with alcohol, it is not possible to do away with it, because in addition to being legal, it is readily available to any willing buyer.

Depressants, though of value to the people are harmful in many ways and people take them despite the impending dangers presented by these drugs. The depressants affect neural activities and as a result create illusion tendencies to the addicts whenever they take them. The depressants temporarily put the addicts in an ideal world, where the reality of life is none existent. This fact makes depressants extremely addictive especially for those who are desperate to escape from the realities of life even for a moment.

Color deficient vision

Color deficient vision also known as Color blindness is the reduced ability to distinguish between two different colors. The nature and impact of color deficient vision varies depending on the gender of the person. It is no secret; color blindness is more pronounced and manifested in men compared to women. Almost all people who suffer from color deficiency vision suffer specifically from the red-green color blindness. The main reason why men are more likely to be color blind, all has to do with the fact that, color blindness is mainly of red-green type. The red-green color blindness is gender bias, by the fact that it is enjoined in the x chromosomes. The resultant effect is that men will more likely than not suffer from color deficiency vision compared to the women, given that the red-green color deficiency vision is encoded in the xx chromosomes.

The red-green color blindness is usually inherited from grandparents. The women do not necessarily suffer from the color deficiency vision, but they carry it pass it over to the child. The woes of people who suffer from the red-green color blindness are not just limited to the green and red color only, but rather extend to other colors in the spectrum. The major problem for the people suffering from the red-green color blindness is associated with the orange color and the green color. However this is not to say that the other colors do not cause their fair share of problems to the people suffering from color blindness. They certainly do, given the fact red-green color blindness is rampant with virtually all people with color deficiency vision suffering from it.

Color deficiency vision; though a sensitive issue in different environmental set up and occupations, it does not in any way render the person suffering incompetent. The people could easily do well in the respective work despite the setback of color deficiency vision.

Parallel processing

Parallel processing refers to the capability of the brain to process and execute information that is of distinct quality. Vision is fundamental, given the fact that the brain the brain partitions whatever that comes to its sights into four sections of motion, depth, color and shape. The brain takes the initiative and scrutinizes them and subsequently evaluates them by making comparisons with the memory.

Unlike the processor in the computer, the human brain has the ultimate capability is to process and execute numerous tasks at the same time with the assistance of the central nervous system and other close functions of the body, from the cognition aspects as regards the overall perception, to hearing, and lastly speaking. Co-ordination of a special nature for all these tasks is of great importance for the brain to complete the process successfully. Whereas the computers appears to process multiple tasks at the same time (multi-tasking), what really happens is that the instructions are read into the computer one by one in a mode that is referred to as serial transmission, this helps the computer in allocating suitable time cycles and avoiding resource conflicts that may arise.

The working of the computer and the brain can however, be compared. The computer and the human brain have parts that are dedicated to their functionality. At no given point will these parts be used for other purposes and therefore reducing the chances of conflict of resources which may lead to a deadlock.

The human brain may be slower than the computer, but one thing is for sure, it is extremely efficient and flexible compared to the processor of the computer. In addition to basic inputs, the computer will require instructions before executing any processes at it disposal.