Comparison of Local Government between Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam
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State:Indonesia Currency: Rupiah (IDR)
Capital: DKI Jakarta
State Structure: Unitary
Form of Government:Constitutional Republic (Presidential)
Local Government: There is Local Government in Indonesia
Indonesia is the one of the country in south-east Asia. To manage the resources on whole area in this state, it is possible if all of the management is undertake by central government. So, Indonesia has implementation of local government to manage each area according to the law No. 32/2004 on Local Government. To manage their resources within own area, Indonesia divide into 35 province that lead by Governor who chosen through an election every 5 years. The province is divided into districts and municipalities, which each province, counties, and the city has a local government, which is regulated by legislation. And, each sub-district (kecamatan) consists of some villages that can define as the lowest level on Local Government in Indonesia. The scheme about Local Government in Indonesia is on picture bellow.
Local Government in Indonesia
Local government in Indonesia defines into 3 terms. They are local government as Implementation of local autonomy, government as an organ, and localities. The implementation of local autonomy is the role of government as a function. There are two functions there, once is the authority as policy-makers and to implement that policy, the other is as function/ responsibility/ affairs. There are many functions that can take by local government such as providing an education, health service, and many more. But, there’s a function that can’t handle by local government, just taken by central government that we call absolute affairs including defense, religion, security, monetary and fiscal, juristic, and foreign-relation. Government as an organ is the person or actors who implementing local government. The person is like the head of province (Governor), council (Bupati), Regents, etc. And localities is about the communities who live in local area. The definition of localities
Local government in Indonesia also divided into 4 categories that have a specific authority, they are deconcentration, decentralization, delegation, and devolution. Deconcentration also called administrative decentralization, it’s only in administrative. Decentralization is transferring authority of responsibility from central to lower government include managing the administrative, politics, economic, fiscal, etc. Devolution is decentralization in political only (political decentralization), it’s mean that local government can make or unmake the policies to make politic stability in their localities. And delegation also called administrative decentralization.
b. Brunei Darussalam
State: Brunei Darussalam
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Currency: Brunei Dollar (BND)
State Structure: Unitary
Forms of Government: Constitutional Sultanate
Local Government: There’s no Local Government
Local Government in Brunei Darussalam
Brunei Darussalam is the one of ten countries in south-east Asia in which capital of the country is Bandar Sri Begawan. Brunei Darussalam has 422.700 populations and the wide area is 5.765 sq km. Forms of government is constitutional monarchy with the head of the country is majesty Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzadin Waddaulah, Sultan and Yang dipertuan of Negara Brunei Darussalam. The Sultan is appointed by Council of succession. Sultan has absolute and full of authority in any state policy to govern the country, including the status of impunity for he and his family empire. People are not given the slightest power. All rules are made by the Sultan without regard to the desires or aspirations of the people. To manage their state, Sultan is assisted and advised by six councils, namely: the Council of Ministers, the Legislative Council, the Religious Council, the Privy Council, the Adat Istiadat Council, and the Council of Succession.
People have handed their rights over the Sultan to rule unanimously. Sultan should be responsible not only to society but also to Allah SWT to bring the communities to achieve the welfare and prosperity. Thus came the proverb in indigenous perspective that says ” Raja tidak zalim, rakyat pantang menderhaka kepada raja” and ”Raja wajib adil, rakyat wajib taat”.
Sultan’s role is enshrined in the national philosophy of Melayu Islam Beraja (MIB). There are six roles of the Sultan in the context of MIB: 1) The Sultan as an umbrella of Allah on the earth, 2) Sultan as the supreme leader of the Islamic religion, 3) Sultan as head of state, 4) Sultan is the head of government, 5) Sultan as supreme leader vogue, and 6) Sultan as supreme commander of the armed forces In the Beraja system there are 3 elements, namely: the king (Sultan), the government and the people. Sultan will be respected and loved by the societies, if government can perform its function well in providing services to the public. By itself the people then will show his loyalty to the Sultan. The government should be able to run the administration well in order to run successful development.
In Brunei Darussalam, it’s only divides into 4 districts, they are Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, and Tutong. The council of minister is appointed by their residents. So, there’s no election in Brunei Darussalam. There’s no local government in Brunei Darussalam, although the local administration takes place through the four districts. At the local level, people are represented by their respective penghulus, ketua kampungs as head of the village, and heads of longhouse.
The Local Government differentiation between Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam
There’s Local Government
There’s no Local Government
form of Local Government
There’s an election every 5 years to determine/ choose the head of localities
There’s no election, because the head of district was chosen by own residents (their own communities) in their respective areas.
Local government have responsibility to Central Government
have responsibility for
their respective communities’s welfare.
The Similarities between Local Government in Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam
Indonesia and Brunei Darussalam
Head of districts
Both of the countries have head of districts area to lead the own area, although with different name. In Indonesia, the district of Province, lead by Governor, municipal by Council (Bupati), regents by “camat”. In Brunei, the districts lead by penghulus and ketua kampungs.
Dodo, 2009. Kesultanan Brunei Darussalam. Access Date on April 7th 2014 through http://nationalgeographic.co.id/forum/topic-96.html
Permana, Renaldy. 2009. Konstitusi Brunei Darussalam. Date access on April 7th 2014, trough http://renaldypermana.blogspot.com/ 009/11/konstitusi-brunei-darussalam.html