India is secular country in nature which consists of 65% of young population which is counted as backbone for country’s development. We need a leadership style in national politics which can bridge the gap between the ideologies of people from various religion having different needs, requirement for the upliftment of their community. In India there are various problems such as naxalism, extreme poverty, superstition, unemployment and under employment, etc., this can create havoc situation in future so we need the leaders who can help to overcome the extreme situation which can arise due to different ideologies. The present study will focus on various leadership styles in politics and their impact on young mind, society and development of nation. It is an academic attempt to mug up certain fact from political field about the present and upcoming leaders in Indian politics and its future prospective. It also study the necessary leadership qualities a leader must have as expected by young minds and choice for the next Prime minister..
Key Words: PoliticalLeader, leadership style, Youth.
1. Introduction:In today’s scenario of politics, the scarcest resource is the leadership talent which would be capable of continuously transforming nation to win in tomorrow’s world. A leadership style is aunique style of to provide direction, to implement developmental plans, and continuously motivating people. There are various leadership styleseach unique in self that can be exhibited by leaders in the political, business or other fields.
India is a country of great diversity with Substantial Regional, Linguistic, Cultural, and Religious variations throughout the country. With suchmagnitudanal variation, it isnot possible to generalize about the society, organizations, and leaders in India, and also about organizational and leadership practices in Indian politics and organization. Despite of many languages and its dialects and well-marked differences between cultures around country, yet there is an over-all unity of design which makes them all members of one family. The stem of country from economic and social organization extends to intellectual and emotional attachment and obligations. The details might vary from place to place, and from one caste to another, yet the uniformity of the traditions on which all of them have been reared cannot be overlooked. Despite of differences of background and period from which each leader belongs, their style interlocked to each other in some or other sense.
1.1 Present Scenario:The fruition of Indian society and its culture has continued its path along with the march of time. From the various study across the country, it was found that, “caste has weakened or almost removed in recent years in terms of its loyalty to hereditary occupation and norms of pureness and pollution. It has also acquired new strength in a political sense as a constituency and as a vote bank”.World is changing every minute and Far-reaching changes are taking place in the economic environment. Globalization is commonly used terms in today’s talk. It is substantialto note that far-reaching economic policies have continued without any serious disturbance despite frequent changes in the government with political parties of different ideologies being in power at different times.Materialism is taking root in today’s scene. It is linked with economic liberalization and restructuring, and the information explosion resulting from the wide-spread of use of electronic mass media, particularly television and boom of ICT. Corruption is the end means of being materialistic and means as being rich as fast as possible.It is groomed from lowest level of government official to high level in political system.
1.2 Important pastleaders and their style:
1.2.2Gandhian Style of leadership: Our father of nation whose leadership style cannot be label, but charismatic, inspirational, visionary, and value based come closest to capturing the essence of his impact on the multitude of his followers. He had very clear style of leadership irrespective caste and creed.
1.2.2Sangh Style leadership: Leadership style of Sangh group is particularly towards community development and sometimes it is proclaimed as nationalist conservative and following to HINDUTAV.
1.2.3Ram Manohar Lohia Leadership style: His leadership style is considered to be more socialistic in nature and to make a developed. He was visionary with respect to formation of society ahead.
1.3 Qualities of a political leader:
A leader is expected to have qualities such as Perseverance, Dedication, Charisma, Empathy, valuing people as individuals and as human beings irrespective of caste and creed, capacity to spot the right people for the right implementation of plans, high personal output, and going further than the normal for becoming an outstanding leaders. Courage, Integrity, and Self-confidence, Courageous were considered to be basic requirements for outstanding leadership.
2. Objectives of the study:
1. To explore the leadership style of Modern times leaders such as Mr. NarendraModi and Ms. Sonia Gandhi.
2. To explore the needs of qualities that youth expect from their political leaders.
3. Research Methodology:
The data has been collected from various sources. The primary data was collected through structured Questionnaire and it was filled by 200 respondents from various colleges from south Mumbai within the age limit of 18 to 25 years. Educational level of respondent were undergraduate and above. Secondary data was collected from various published and unpublished research papers, articles, books, reports and mimeograph.
4. Indian Political System and Leaders:
India, a union of states, is a Sovereign, Secular, Democratic Republic with a Parliamentarysystem of Government. The Indian Polity is governed in terms of the Constitution. The President is the constitutional head of Executive of the Union. Real executive power vests in a Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as head. Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advise the President who exercises his functions, act in accordance with such advice. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the LokSabha. While the respective states, the Governor, as the representative of the President, is the head of Executive, but real executive power rests with the Chief Minister who heads the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the elected legislative assembly of the state. The Constitution governs the sharing of legislative power between Parliament and the State Legislatures, and provides for the vesting of residual powers in Parliament. Thus, Prime Minister and Chief Minister should be an effective leader with special qualities which differentiate them from the rest and stands out differentiate in their leadership style. The power to amend the Constitution also vests in Parliament.
A recognized political party has been classified as a National Party or a State Party. If a political party is recognized in four or more states, it is considered as a National Party. Some of the party which are recognized and known are Congress, BharatiyaJanata Party, Janata Dal, Communist Party of India and Communist Party of India (Marxist) are the prominant National Parties in the Country. Shiv Sena in Maharashtra, BahujanSamaj Party and Samajwadi Party in Uttar Pradesh and All India Forward Block in West Bengal are the prominent state parties.
Till date Fourteen LokSabhas have been constituted. Excluding for the short-lived Sixth and Ninth LokSabha, the Congress Party ruled the country majorly. The Sixth Lok Sabha worked for about two years and four months and the Ninth Lok Sabha was in rule for one year and two months. Even in the states, the regional parties or the non-congress parties have gained in importance over these years. The renowned leaders among this loksabha’s were Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Ms. Indira Gandhi, Mr. Moorarjee Desai, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, Mr. V.P.Singh, Mr. AtalBihari Vajpayee, Mr. P.V.NarshimaRao, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee and Mr. LalkrishnaAdvani.. Each of these leaderswas effective in their style and overcome obstacles of their time to bring changes in political system.
4.1. Mr. NarendraModi:
Mr. NarendraModi was born on 17 September 1950 in a middle-class family in Vadnagar in Mehsana district of Ahemdabad (with in Bombay state at that time), India. He is a vegetarian. He completed his schooling in Vadnagar. He earned a master’s degree in political science from Gujarat University.
Mr. Modi is known for leading a frugal lifestyle. He has a personal staff of three. He is known to be a workaholic and an introvert. Despite of being face of HINDUTAV, he ordered the demolition of many illegal Hindu temples that were built without proper government sanction which earned him the ire of VHP.
During the Indo-Pak war in the mid-sixties, even as a young boy, he volunteered to serve the soldiers in transit at railway stations.As a young man, he joined the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad, a student organization and was involved in the anti-corruption NavNirman Movement. After working as a full-time organizer for the organization, he was later nominated as its representative in the BJP.In 2001; he was elected as Chief Minister of Gujarat succeeding to Keshubhai Patel. But he was asked to resign in 2002. In resultant election he won the elections with 127 seats from 182 seats in state assembly. In 2007, he won election against Sonia Gandhi with his hi-charge speeches and continued the post of CM. In 2011, he started 3 days fast as a part of Sadbhavana mission with a view to strengthen the peace, unity and harmony in the state. In 2011, he won again and continued at the same post. This proves that he has that aroma around his personality that attracts lots of people’s confidence in him. He has proved his worth with his effective leadership and placing Gujarat at 2nd Rank in term of developed state during 2011-12. Thus BJP is in rule successfully in Gujarat since 1995.
4.1.3 Special Achievements:
Despite various controversies against him, he has been awarded in different category. Some of them are as follows:
Gujarat Ratna by Shri Poona Gujarati BandhuSamaj at Ganesh Kala KridaManch on celebration of centenary year.
e-Ratna award by the Computer Society of India.
Best Chief Minister – In a nationwide survey conducted in 2006 by India Today magazine, NarendraModi was declared the Best Chief Minister in the country.
Asian Winner of the fDi Personality of the Year Award for 2009 by fDi Magazine
4.1.4. Style of leadership:
Long term planning and clear focus: Mr. Modi sets goals and controls manpower to complete individual tasks; he practically and directly supervises personnel even at the very bottom of the pyramid of his power.
Risk-taker: He understands that if there’s one way the state could turn eyes, that is by opening the state. He knows the corporates would do the rest, all he has to do is to attempt them in, and make people – his end customers, believe that it is basically him who does it all by taking immense risk.
Thinker: As an analyzer he ultimately knows what kind of effect would last-long on his team, people and media. He would constantly make sure that somehow, people keep talking about him. This maybe a typical politician’s game, but Modi’s style is different. By this, he maintains a brand value like no other. His target is wide and his ways of reaching them are very few. His branding methods sometimes cost him a part of his own reputation, but he knows when it is worth. He knows his powers and most of all, his weaknesses. This makes him and his enterprise (state) invincible.
Inspirational to Youth: He inspires the youth on large scale and strengthens them through providing all they need to excel in terms of better infrastructure.
He is a crowd puller as a speaker.
Future Prospective: He has proved from his leadership in Gujarat, that he can bring the required changes in Indian Political system that can bring sustainable development on large to benefit country on large. So he is the most favorable candidate from BJP for the next Prime Minister of India.
4.2 Sonia Gandhi:
Sonia Gandhi (born Edvige Antonia AlbinaMaino; 9 December 1946) is an Italian-born Indian politician, She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi and belongs to the Nehru-Gandhi family. After her husband’s assassination in 1991, she was invited by Congress leaders to take over the government; but she refused and publicly stayed away from politics amidst constant prodding from the party. She finally agreed to join politics in 1997; in 1998, she was elected as President of the Indian National Congress party since 1998. She has also served as the Chairperson of the ruling United Progressive Alliance in the LokSabha since 2004. In September 2010, on being re-elected for the fourth time, she became the longest serving president in the 125-year history of the Congress party. Her foreign birth has been a subject of much debate and controversy. Although she is the fifth foreign-born person to be leader of the Congress Party, she is the first since independence in 1947.
In May 1999, three senior leaders of the party (SharadPawar, P. A. Sangma, and Tariq Anwar) challenged her right to try to become India’s Prime Minister because of her foreign origins. In response, she offered to resign as a party leader, resulting in an outpouring of support and the expulsion from the party of the three rebels who went on to form the Nationalist Congress Party. Within 62 days of joining as a primary member, she was offered the party President post which she accepted. She contested LokSabha elections from Bellary, Karnataka and Amethi, Uttar Pradesh in 1999. In Bellary she defeated veteran BJP leader, SushmaSwaraj. In 2004 and 2009, she was re-elected to the LokSabha from Rae Bareli in Uttar Pradesh. Under her leadership, India returned the Congress-led-UPA to a near majority in the 2009 general elections with Manmohan Singh as the Prime Minister. The Congress itself won 206 LokSabha seats, which was the highest total by any party since 1991.
4.2.2. Special Achievements:
She was named the third most powerful woman in the world by Forbes Magazine in the year 2004 and was ranked 6th in 2007.
In 2010, she was ranked as the ninth most powerful person on the planet by Forbes Magazine.
She was also named among the Time 100 most influential people in the world for the years 2007 and 2008.
The British magazine “New Statesman” listed her at number 29 in their annual survey of “The World’s 50 Most Influential Figures” in the year 2010.
4.2.3. Style of Leadership:
Sonia’s leadership style stands out different because it breaks long-standing stereotypes.
Reluctant:A reluctant politician, she stunned all the stone of doubt on her due to foreign origin, by declining the post of prime minister more than once.
Taking New Challenges: Being open to taking on new challenges. Despite of various controversy related to her foreign origin, she joined party and proved her worth.
Breaking Language Barriers: Breaking out of the “Italian on Indian soil” mould was probably one of the most difficult things for her to do, considering her Hindi was heavily-accented and there were enough detractors in the opposition to play up the “foreigner” card. But instead of giving up, she worked on her language skills and became the force behind the pro-poor programmes of the Congress-led UPA government – an Endeavour which took her to the mofussil villages of India where Hindi was the only language spoken. So much so, that this campaign helped Congress win elections again in 2009.
Rejuvenating Self: She is always rejuvenating self, from small town Italian girl to one of the most powerful women in the world, she has come a long way. She has come under some of the worst criticism and the best praise in her 15-year political career. She has remained unfazed through both.
A structured questionnaire was get filled by 200 respondents from South Mumbai. Respondents were from age group of 18 years to 24 years especially from undergraduates and post graduates 10 colleges in South Mumbai. 150 respondents were from age group of 18 years to 21 years doing graduation courses and 50 were from age group 22 years to 25 years doing post graduation courses. The questionnaire was about the leadership qualities they expect to have in their political leaders.
From the table no. 1, it is found that 125 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 40 from 22 to 25 needs a leader with good personality. 40 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 10 from 22 to 25 needs a leader who follows religion based politics. Such as supporter of HINDUTAV. 110 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 40 from 22 to 25 needs a leader who follows non religion based politics. Such as support all cause irrespective of caste and creeds. 150 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 50 from 22 to 25 needs leaders who have progressive ideas and ways to implement them fast and bring the meaning of economic development meaningful for the common masses. She/He must a person of action rather than words.100 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 30 from 22 to 25 needs a leader who can spare time for interacting with common masses to understand their grievances and take actions to solve them. All the respondents need a leader who can understand youth’s need, is a mass leader and is a non corrupt. All the respondents need a leader under whose leadership style there will be good governance and bring meaning to true politics and adding to meaning of democracy. 100 youth from age group 18 to 21 and 35 from 22 to 25 needs a leader with good experience and he should be prompt action taker rather than just a spectator for the situation.
From the table no.2, It is found that 103 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 57 favours Rahul Gandhi and 40 favours other regarding personality as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 80 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 110 favours Rahul Gandhi and 10 favours other regarding Religion based politics as a quality for next Prime Minister.It is found that 50 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 90 favours Rahul Gandhi and 60 favours other regarding non Religion Based politics as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 97 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 54 favours Rahul Gandhi and 49 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 49 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 88 favours Rahul Gandhi and 63 favours other regarding Interactive sessions with the common masses as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 63 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 93 favours Rahul Gandhi and 34 favours other regarding Understanding youth’s need as a quality for next Prime Minister.It is found that 108 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 56 favours Rahul Gandhi and 36 favours other regarding Mass leader as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 72 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 87 favours Rahul Gandhi and 41 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 93 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 48 favours Rahul Gandhi and 59 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister. It is found that 119 respondent favoursNarendraModi, 42 favours Rahul Gandhi and 39 favours other regarding Progressive ideas as a quality for next Prime Minister.
From the graph no.1 it is reveals that, after considering the response for overall quality of political leaders for the choice between Mr. NarendraModi, Mr. Rahul Gandhi and others, 42% favours Mr. NarendraModi, 37% favours Mr. Rahul Gandhi and 21% favours Other candidate for the post next of prime Minister.
6. Conclusion of the study:
It is concluded from the study that youth needed a strong, effective, action taker rather than word taker, master minded, progressive, practical rather than theoretical in action. Thus, an effective leader is the need of the day. The present study also have limitations like constrains of the respondents (in number), time and location etc. which can affect the findings. Same study can be taken on the larger basis for more effective study.