There are two vices that US has been fighting with no avail. This is racial profiling and stereotyping. The minority group has been in the receiving end. An example of these groups is Asian, Arabs and Southern Asian people among others (Mahdavi, pg 213). This has been in increase especially after 9/11 incidence.
Racial profiling is the practice of law that is enforced through agent relying on any degree, ethnicity, race, religion and the country of origin through selection of individuals who are subjected to routine or investigation process such as searches, traffic stops and seizures (Banks, pg 1210). This act manifests prejudice that mostly materializes on an institutional level. This act leads to racialism that US government has recently given a great stride towards ending it, yet it persists.
Stereotype is a representation that generalizes all people typical characteristic depending with their place of origin, religion, and race and ethic group. This act has been condemned around the world as it propagates improper prejudices to innocent people. United State of America has been in forefront to fight against stereotype though it is still evident throughout.
Due to the dangers that are encompassed herein, the act especially of racial profiling has become a matter of national concern. This requires it to be discussed everywhere to ensure that it is brought to right for the entire person to see how our brothers from Arab and Asian community have been subjected to these vices by government institutions. Therefore, through this research proposal, several incidences will be brought to right to show that racial profiling of Muslim and Arabs has become worse since 9/11.
Racial Profiling Post 9/11
Since the tragic event that happened on 9/11 in US, the government in this country has subjected many men of who appears to be of Muslim, Arab or south Asian origin to racial profiling, punishment, unfair treatment, investigation and arbitrary detention (Harcourt, pg 67). This as been done oblivious of having no specific materials from these individuals showing that they endanger the country’s peace. Otherwise, they have been in scrutiny through allegations that they might be in connection with terrorist activities in the country. This is due to the stereotype that the individuals are related to for any Arab or Muslim nationality is seen threat to peace especially after the 9/11 incidence. According to the 2007 report by ACLU and 2008 by RWG, it shows that there is no man who has been caught to associate to terrorism. Nevertheless, the law enforcers have been categorizing them as having special interest in the country. But critically looking at the trend that these men are apprehended, it go without saying that they are all held hostage through decisions predetermined in terms of their race, ethnic and religion profiles.
They are put in custody for long time where they get physical as well as psychological brutally. They are mistreated and even after being found innocent of the allegations of them involvement in terrorism activities, most of them is deported. According to Akram, & Johnson, pg 311, it is evident that there has been a greater violation of human rights through these acts that have been subjected towards individual families and the broader community of the prone group.
After the 9/11, tragedy US has propagated this racial profiling through a special registration system otherwise known as National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS). The government through immigration has enforced this targeting generally the members of Muslim, Arab and south Asian communities.
They did this through ensuring that all the people from the Muslim predominant countries were registered at the port and local immigration offices. They are interrogated, investigated and sometime deported. More than 14000 out of 83000 men who voluntarily presented themselves for scrutiny were later deported. In these offices, the group is taken their fingerprint, photos and interrogated for a lengthy period based on the country of origin. Although the US government has maintained that NSEERS position did not constitute religious profiling but only their place of origin, it is evident that it was mostly inclined towards Islamic religion (Harcourt, pg 56). This has been extended to the whole country making the Asian and Arab group become more prone to racial profiling.
There has been a great evidence to prove that the situation of racial profiling has been in increase since September 11, especially to the Arab and Muslims people. According to the report that was released by the Amnesty International in 2004, “Threat and Humiliation,” the effects of the racial are at high. The reported show that before 9/11 tragedy, the racial profiling was lower and it was termed as ‘driving while black.’ Nevertheless, it is currently hiked and more pronounced especially to the Arab and Muslim origin. They now term it as driving, flying, walking, worshipping, shopping and staying at home while black, brown, red, yellow, Muslim or Middle eastern person.
According to the report, 32 millions people in America, which is almost the population of Canada, is a subject of racial profiling. In additional, one person for every person is at high risk of racial profiling in accordance to the stereotype that is attached with his or her place of origin. Arabs and Asian are at the most risk.
This act has been reported across the US country with almost all the human watch organizations raising alarm over this issue. According to Unpatriotic Act, which is the annual report of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) reports that the racial profiling against Muslims especially people has risen by 70% since the September 9/11 incidences? This has lead to harassment, violence and discrimination. It is believed that in only three months after the incidence, racial profiling rose by thirty percent (Harcourt, pg 76).
The federal government through its state and local agencies and their officials has mostly propagated this. There have been reported cases whereby these people from Islamic countries are pulled out of the vehicle with no due reasons (Akram, & Johnson, pg 324). They then undergo FBI frisking claiming that they want to check then out.
The act is seemingly far from coming to a halt. This can be seen through some of the utterances made by even religious people who say that they are in right. A good example is Rev. Flip Berham who is the director of Operation Save America, which is an Anti- abortion organization, was quoted terming Islam as a lie that is from the pit of hell. He said that it is also demonic and a murderous religion. Such utterances from a revered person show the level at which racial profiling has been aggravated in the people.
According to a book “In Defense of Internment,” from Michele Malkin who is a right-wing columnist, she claims that saying that there is discrimination against Muslim is just propagating a myth. This is said oblivious of knowledge of all what is happening to these races in the country. Taking an account of such utterances that come from a learned person who is a cream of the society shows that the racial profiling is away from ending.
Another episode showing that the level at which the racial profiling is in increase was about what the Tucson Citizen published in December 2003(Akram, & Johnson, pg 332). In the letter to the editor, they published that the readers should go to the nearest mosque and kill at least five Muslims. Even after the judge ruled that, that was a call to direct violence against innocent Islamic Americans, Gannet went on to challenge the issue. This shows that the paper was not apologetic about the issue and was out to propagate the racism and impunity.
The Arab countries have been generalized in the stereotype that they cannot be democratic. This seem to be taken advantage of by even scholars who at this twenty first century still instill racial profile to the coming generation of US with such discourse that are cited in different journal. According to a recent journal titled “Current History,” American Enterprise Institute Scholar Joshua Muravchik said, “could it that something peculiar to the Arab World Makes it especially allergic to democracy or incapable of practicing it?” This has been generalized to all the Arab and Muslim Countries making their people who are in America or in the transit process to that place be susceptible to racial profiling (Akram, & Johnson, pg 314).. This kind of issues shows the rate at which the racial profiling has been in rise of recent soon.
The deep-rooted racism has been taken a notch high of the recent soon by evidence coming so openly. Through Democratic presidential contender John Kelly supporting 95% of Patriotic Act provision show the level at which the racism is at high level in US. There have been allegations that Jad Humeidan the director of CAIR Ohio proven true that Arabs are denied job, housing and security and instead arrested for no cause.
Though the government of United State has tried to abolish this racial profiling, it has been in vain. This is because it has been institutionalized in the name of fighting terrorism. According to different recommendations about the issue, it has been said that discrimination of all means against non-citizen under all measures that are taken in fight against terrorism should be prohibited. The federal government should, according to recommendation of state party number 30 (2004), discourage discriminate in terms of color, race, descent, national or ethnic origin (Banks, pg1214). The report also recommended that the government should put to an end NEERS which was formed as a form of discrimination against Arabs, Muslim and South Asians.
Nevertheless, the people who were to challenge the existence of NEERS have failed terribly. In 2008 September according to Banks pg1214, a petition Rajah v. Mukasey, four people were in pursuit to remove the proceedings to ensure that NSEERS is not constitutional, but the Second Circuit of Appeal rejected their case. According to Mahdavi pg 230, the court claim that they have seen the Immigration and National Act provides for statutory authorization of NSEERS program. They claimed that it do not violate equal protection clause in the US constitution thus the case was invalid. Therefore, National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS) was there to stay. This means that racial profiling was not at any point of ceasing in recent soon but increase as it has been institutionalized.
Having been implemented, NSEERS has continually affected the lives of many people especially the Arabs, Muslim and South Asian. This is because its implementation has been subjected to these individual communities. Most of them have been denied naturalization and consequently deported if not registered under the same order. Most of those people who are deported are those whop failed to register because they were not aware or became afraid due to the interrogations, detentions and deportation that happened to their family members or their friends.
Through the above malicious ideas, NSEERS is used as a tool to target the mentioned individuals who had not complied with their provisions. They do not care the reason that have made them not either to register or adjust their green card status, may be inclusion of the wife after marriage. These people have been deported through proceedings that they willfully fail to register which might not be the case. This shows the level of racial profiling that has been propagated currently in US despite of them claiming to fight against it.
An example of a case Abdul-Karim Nasser Morocco native and his wife Patricia Stewart who is an American citizen have three children. Unluckily, Nasser was not aware that he was supposed to reregister. In February 5, 2002, his wife filed a petition on behalf of her husband. On the same day, Nasser had applied for adjustment of his marital status and work authorization. In pursuant of his work authorization, Nasser went on June 3, 2003 in local DHS office where he was adviced that he was supposed to register with NSEERS. He underwent special registration before adjusting his status on January 2006. Unfortunately, he was later denied adjustment of status therefore not legible to work in US as he was told he had willfully violated NSEERS rules (Banks, pg1215).
The above case is just an example to show the magnitude that the racial profiling has been in increase in the US especially after September 9/11 incidences. Despite the level of the improvement that US has made since World War II in fight against discrimination with great call by Martin Luther King Jr., still there is a lot to be done. Though there has been a stereotype that Arab countries are associated with terrorism, statistic has proven them wrong as there is known who have ever undergone racial profiling has ever been found with any concrete evidence that he/she is an affiliate from the terrorist group. Yet, this has not reduced the intensity at which Arabs, Muslims and Southern Asian people are subjected to interrogations, detention as well as deportation. Better method of fighting terrorism should be devised to make US a complete renowned democratic state where all the people in the world can feel at home, as the ancestors of democracy so wished.