Heart Rate Changes In Different Genders Physical Education Essay

This report sets out research based on prior experience and literature carrying out the study of relations between exercise and respiration eventually resulting in variation in pulse rate. In essence the research proposal seeks to understand more about the effect and cause relationship to come out with precise results. The report details the methodological issues connected with the research and it explores the choices and assumptions necessary in planning the research. The aim of the study was to see the effect of age and gender on pulse rate variation in response to exercise. For this investigation we made sure the practical is safe because we would not do things that would affect people and also we would not be dangerous to others. We needed to use pulse-meter to check pulse rate down every finding. In our research it was expected that the pulse rate would increase during the time of exercise and also the breathing rate would be faster than normal and that gender and age would affect the pulse rate of people. The weights (dumbles) were given to the subjects to use for five minute and one of us assisted them to make sure they used the weights properly. The pulse rate was noted down before the experiment with the help of pulse meter and was recorded again after carrying out the five minute round of exercise with the weights. The ages and gender were also noted. The results of the experiment proved that the pulse rate increased by a substantial amount after the exercise had been completed and that females had a higher pulse rate than men. Moreover, it was seen that age men’s ages increase, their pulse rate increases and there was no correlation between female’s ages and their pulse rates.

This experiment tests the effects of age, gender and exercise on pulse rate. Pulse rate represents the beating of the heart, specifically the ejection of blood from the left ventricle to the general circulation of the body. Before the start of exercise, your pre-exercise heart rate usually rises above normal, and this is called an anticipatory response. During exercise, respiration increases based on the amount of activity being done. When exercise is being completed, there is an increased demand for gas exchange, due to the circulatory system being under continuous stress. Oxygen consumption increases rapidly, as well as carbon dioxide production. Regular exercise also produces changes in circulation. The blood flow to working muscles increase, and this means that more oxygen and energy can be delivered to the muscle cells. Blood volume and the number of red blood cells also increase with this large flow, and oxygen levels rise considerably. In our experiment we have decided to test a type of exercise; use of weight (dumbles). This will affect various parts of the body and is designed to build up stamina and keep a regular heart beat.

Objective

This experiment aims to discover how exercise can affect the pulse rate of any given individual by testing their pulse rate after different amounts of exercise and how gender and age affects the pulse rate.

Literature Review

Research has shown that the pulse rate of men is slower than the pulse rate for women.

Different researches have been conducted on the effect of exercise on the health of human being. The studies were intended to examine the influence of exercise on pulse rate, heart rate and fitness of people.

Experts from cardiac health suggest that the best way to keep hearts healthy is a balanced diet, avoiding smoking, and regular exercise. Exercise that is good for your heart elevates your heart rate. The American Heart Association recommends to do exercise that increases your heart rate to between 50 and 75% of your maximum heart rate. They recommend getting at least 30 minutes of exercise on most days of the week (AHA, 2006).

The American Heart Association also suggests that pulse rate for woman is considered normal if it is between 70-80 beats per minute. However, pulse rate may be affected by variables such as age, sex, physical fitness, some drugs/medication, genetics and anxiety.

A study of (WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise) revealed that your pulse changes from minute to minute. It will be faster when you exercise, have fever or when you are under stress. It will be slower when you are taking rest. The institute also did an experiment to see the pulse rate difference in males and females. The results of the experiment were that the pulse rate of the females was in fact higher than the male pulse rate by six beats. The overall female average was 85 beats per minute and the overall for males was 79 beats per minute.

Scott Roberts, Ph.D., FACSM, FAACVPR, is an assistant professor in the Department of Physical Education and Exercise Physiology at California State University, Chico. His primary area of expertise is Clinical Exercise Physiology. He has authored and co-authored 10 fitness and exercise science books and over a hundred articles and chapters in books. His studies tell that women have a higher Heart Rate response than men. This response compensates for the lower stroke volumes women have compared to men. The average amount of blood pumped out of the heart per minute is referred to as cardiac output.

Another research by the American Journal of hypertension concluded that there was no influence of the exercise on pulse rate, blood pressure level and rates of hypertension of the elderly population of ages 50 and above. But the research showed that regular exercise can develop better health and fitness in the younger population.

According to (Silverstein, Alvin Dr., et al, The Circulatory System Canada; Fitzhenrey and Whiteside Ltd. 1994), age also affects the pulse rate. The usual pulse rate for a baby embryo is 150 b.p.m. (beats per minute).The average pulse rate of an infant140 b.p.m and 90 b.p.m in seven years old. A man from 30-40 years old usually has a pulse rate of approximately 72 b.p.m; this differs from 76-80 b.p.m for a woman of the same age. Elderly people have the lowest of the other age groups, which is around 50-65 b.p.m. Women usually have higher pulse rates than men. Another difference among pulse rates is physical activity. Exercising, such as playing sports, speed your pulse rate up and almost double the speed of your heart.

A study from Brigham and Womens Hospital also conveys the message that the human health can be judged by four vital signs which are Pulse rate, Body temperature, Respiration rate and the Blood pressure. All of these signs can be controlled and regulated by doing regular exercise.

Like all other researches Texas Heart Institute also came up with a thought that exercise can help your body in many ways. Aside from helping you to keep a healthy body weight, exercise increases your mobility, protects against bone loss, reduces your stress levels and pulse rates, and helps you feel better about yourself. And research has shown that people who exercise are less likely to develop heart disease, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels. People of any age or fitness level can benefit from some type of exercise, be it running, walking, ballroom dancing, water aerobics, gardening, or any activity you choose.

A study from NEMA (National Emergency Medicine Association) shows that many athletes have pulse rates in the 40 – 60 range depending on how fit they are. In general a lower pulse rate is good and exercise programs helps doing so. In addition to that declines will be seen in resting heart rate, blood pressure, and stress levels as well. Overall body changes will also be experienced including weight loss and increase of lean body mass.

Hypothesis Development
Null Hypothesis

H0 = There is no relationship between the age, gender and pulse rate.

HO: p a‰ 0
Alternative Hypothesis

HA = There is a relationship between the age, gender and pulse rate.

HA: p = 0
Theoretical Framework

The dependent variable here is the pulse rate which changes when exercise is carried out. So, exercise, gender and age are the independent variables which can be manipulated to determine the change in pulse rate. Some intervening variable also interrupt the independent variable and create a discrepancy in the results.

Identification of Variables
Independent
“Exercise”

“Age”

“Gender”

Dependent

“Pulse Rate”

Intervening variables

Such as illness, faulty tools etc.

DIAGRAM
Dependent Variable
Independent Variables
Age
Gender
Exercise
Pulse Rate
Intervening Variables
illness, faulty tools
Methodology
Nature Of study

the nature of the study is hypothesis testing.

Data Collection

The data for our research was obtained through experiment and some secondary sources of information, which included internet articles, journals and books.

Population

Our target population consisted of males and females living in Lahore.

Sample

The sample comprises of 1070 people, half males and half females.

Instruments

The instruments used were two dumbles weighing 5 kg each, a stopwatch and a pulse meter.

Procedure:

The methodology was based on field Experiment research. 1070 people (half males and half females) were approached in different parks and market areas of Lahore. Convenience sampling was used i.e(willing people were chosen to be a part of the experiment). Their pulse rates were recorded before exercise. They were each asked to use lift two weights of 5 kg each for five minutes. Their pulse rate after the exercise was then recorded using the pulse meter. Their age and gender was recorded. The results were then recorded in SPSS and conclusions were drawn based on the collected results.

Reliability

The reliability of the instruments was ensured through test-retest method. For test-retest reliability method five males from the sample were chosen. Their pulse rate before exercise was recorded twice after a time interval of two minutes. The results obtained in both the attempts co-related to a high degree (Co-efficient=0.87).

Validity

The content validity is ensured since the pulse meter is measuring the pulse of a person per minute.

Results

The results of the experiment are as follows:

Descriptives:

The results show that the mean values of pulse rate in males are lower than the mean values of the pulse rate in females. This shows that females have a higher pulse rate than men. The results also prove that the pulse rate increases after exercise, as the means of the pulse rates before exercise are lower than the means of the pulse rates after exercise.

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Without Exercise male

1070

55

105

85.09

10.227

With Exercise male

1070

82

144

116.03

13.118

Valid N (listwise)

1070

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

With Exercise Female

535

96

144

120.41

10.060

Without Exercise Female

535

70

105

92.19

6.373

Valid N (listwise)

535

Correlation:

The table below shows a weak positive correlation between age of males and their pulse rate without exercise. This means that as the ages of males increase, their pulse rate increases. The value is significant.

Age

Without Exercise pulse

Age male

Pearson Correlation

1

.270(**)

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

535

535

Without

Exercise pulse males

Pearson Correlation

.270(**)

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

535

535

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The table below shows that there is almost no correlation between the age of females and their pulse rate without exercise. This means that the two variables are not related.

Age Female

Without Exercise pulse

Age Female

Pearson Correlation

1

.043

Sig. (2-tailed)

.317

N

535

535

Without Exercise pulse female

Pearson Correlation

.043

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.317

N

535

535

Graphical representation of results
Discussion

We are of the view that when the body is exercising the muscles respire to produce energy, so the muscles can contract. Oxygen is needed for this process; the oxygen is carried in the hemoglobin of the red blood cell. The heart and lungs need to work harder in order to get a greater amount of oxygen to the muscles for respiration. In muscle cells digested food substances are oxidized to release energy. These oxidation reactions are called cellular respiration. When muscles use oxygen in order to respire the process is called aerobic respiration: The heart rate rises because during exercise, cell respiration in the muscles increases, so the level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises. Carbon dioxide is slightly acid; the brain detects the rising acidity in the blood, the brain then sends a signal through the nervous system to the lungs to breathe faster and deeper. Gaseous exchange in the lungs increases allowing more oxygen into the circulatory system and removing more carbon dioxide. The brain then sends a signal to the senatorial node to make the heart beat faster. As a result the heart rate would rise. The length of exercise is increased; the number of beats per minute will rise. The number of beats per minute rises steadily because the amount of exercise is gradually increased. The heart reacts to this by increasing the number of times per minute that it beats so that the muscles have enough oxygen and glucose to work with the greater amount of exercise. In a trial the body temperature of the exerciser will rise. The heat of the body will increase the heart rate which will adversely affect our results, making them less accurate and reliable. We cannot control if the body heats up during exercise, only to the extent of using a fan to cool the epidermis of the skin which would lower the temperature of the blood, thus reducing the body’s core temperature. This would then keep the heart rate at a more natural level when a sample will be exercising. The intervening variables which may act at the point of time and are hard to calculate may affect the findings but we are trying to minimize the chance of error by taking measures. Although exercise increases pulse rate, age and gender definitely have an impact on it also. We saw that as age in men increases, their pulse rate also increases, whereas in females, there is no correlation between the age and pulse rates. Moreover, the mean values of pulse rates for females are higher than the mean values of pulse rates for men.

Acknowledgements

Our debt to people who have supported us in this whole project is enormous. We highly appreciate their complete support, interest, patience and lucid explanations. We highly appreciate the coordination of individuals most of whom we didn’t know who cooperated and showed their consent to complete our research. We are really thankful to Mr. Humair Hashmi who taught and led us to the path of attaining a successful Research.

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