Fitness Testing For Sport And Exercise Physical Education Essay

Dip your fingers in chalk with the hand on your strongest arm, then stand with you back flat against the wall with your arms extended as high as they can reach with them flat against the wall then mark out where your arms reach to/push the wall mounted reach board up to the height your arms will extend to, stand side on stronger arm closest to the wall/board, then crouch low then push straight of the floor and touch the wall/board, measure with the ruler how many cm from where the marking where there arm extended max to the chalk marking how many cm’s is between the 2 markings, on the board there are already cm measurements on there so you just see which number the finger markings are on.

Method of assessment:

To measure the amount of explosive power in the lower limbs in cm by measuring how high a person’s vertical jump is.

How analysed:

Measured in cm and mm to make it more accurate and marked on a sheet.

Target group:

Sprinters and basketballers.

Reliability of test:

The test is reliable because the same action is made each time so fur, if using the board the measurements are accurate

Validity of test:

This test is very good for validity being the test most people will do for lower limb power and all four factors are shown too.

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: Cheap and affordable using simple equipment.

Disadvantages: Wall mounted board is really expensive.

Time

Advantages: The test doesn’t take long so it doesn’t become tedious.

Disadvantages: The short amount of time can be considered as quite a rubbish test.

Equipment

Advantages: Less equipment is required and wall mounted board is very accurate.

Disadvantages: Measurements could be inaccurate if using the cheaper equipment.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: Low level of skill is required so a lot of people are capable to take this test.

Disadvantages: Low level skill could lead to the test to be tedium.

Cardiovascular endurance

Bleep test, beep test, pacer test, leger-test, 20m shuttle run test.

Objective

To test the amount of cardiovascular endurance someone has by seeing how long someone can last during the bleep test.

Resources needed:

Metre clicker to mark out 20m, cones, beep test CD and CD player and marking sheets. (This will take place in a no slip surface)

How conducted:

The beep test CD will be played and you have to stand behind one line facing the other and there will be beeps in between each beep you have to run from one line to the other e.g. “beep” run 20m to the line “beep”. The test starts with the first level where the beeps are quite slow but then after approximately 1 minute or 7 runs the level gets higher and the closer the beeps are together so the test gets faster, this test stops on level 20 and for someone to be out is when they miss the beep before they reach the 20m line.

Method of assessment:

To measure the cardiovascular endurance or vo2 max in shuttle runs the predicted vo2 max is at each level and the shuttle number i.e. level 4 shuttle 2 predicted vo2 max is 26.8.

How analysed:

Writing down on recording sheets each level and shuttle they reached or dropped out of and the Vo2 max national average for males is 9/3 and for females 6/6.

Target group:

Long distance runners

Reliability of test:

The test is accurate is because the CD plays the same thing over and over again so there’s no worries on inaccuracy of the test and also motivation could effect the reliability.

Validity of test:

This test has good validity because the bleep test is the most valid test used for people to measure

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: cheap for CD because the copy is downloadable.

Disadvantages: could be costly if you don’t have a CD player, metre clicker and cones and also expensive if having to rent out a facility.

Time

Advantages: the test has enough time to record the level they reach.

Disadvantages: test lasts quite long and becomes quite tedious.

Equipment

Advantages: less equipment required and also the equipment is straight forward not complex.

Disadvantages: faulty equipment like scratched CD.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: straight forward because it’s only running and this is an easy or simple skill to conduct.

Disadvantages: cardiovascular endurance a lot of people really struggle with.

Strength

1 rep max

Objective:

To test the amount of strength someone has by seeing the max weight someone lifts.

Resources needed:

Weight machines e.g. bench press, fly machine, leg press, free weights or lat pull down. (Gym)

How conducted:

You go to the weight machine you are comfortable with the lifting technique if not get someone to learn you the technique or read how the technique is done on the machine. Which ever weight machine you use you start on the smallest weight by warming up with a few reps 5-15 reps then you work your way by increasing the weight each time you do 1 rep, you work your way increasing the weight until you get the weight you cant do 1 rep of.

Method of assessment:

To test the amount of strength someone has in the pectoral, deltoid, trapezius, lateral, triceps and biceps by seeing the max amount of kg’s someone can do 1 rep of.

How analysed:

How many kg you lifted and marked on recording sheets.

Target group:

Rugby players, weight lifters.

Reliability of test:

The test is reliable because weights stay the same weight unless you increase the weight.

Validity of test:

This test is valid because it tests the strength in the specific muscle that is working or contracting.

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: some gyms are quite cheep and its also cheep for a day trial.

Disadvantages: some gyms cost loads and also buying your own weights costs quite a lot.

Time

Advantages: test doesn’t take long so it doesn’t become boring.

Disadvantages: people could consider it being rubbish because it’s a short test.

Equipment

Advantages: weight machines are safe to use

Disadvantages: free weights can be quite dangerous if using a free weight bench weight could collapse on you if too heavy.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: the skill is quite simple to do.

Disadvantages: its common that people tend to arch there backs when lifting weights so this skill people might not be able to do properly and injure themselves.

Suppleness/Flexibility

Sit and reach

Objective:

To test the amount of suppleness someone has in the lower back and calf’s by seeing how far someone can sit and reach forwards.

Resources needed:

A bench, a metre ruler/tape measure or a flex tester.

How conducted:

Sit with you stomach against the bench lengthways with your both legs either side of the bench and you reach out as far as you can with both hands and hold the position and measure from the start of the bench is to where your hands are held furthest. On the flex tester you sit with you stomach against the flex tester lengthways the with your both legs either side of the flex tester on this piece of equipment there is a handle you push forwards as far as you can and where you push it you see how many cm you have pushed it next to the handle you push.

Method of assessment:

To test the amount of suppleness someone has in there lower back and the amount of cm the person can reach with the extension of the lower back.

How analysed:

How many cm the person has reached and put down results on recording sheets.

Target group:

Gymnasts

Reliability of test:

This test is reliable because the same action is made and accurate measurements are recorded on flex tester.

Validity of test:

This test is valid because the only flexibility it will test is in the lower back and hamstrings.

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: using the bench, tape measure and chalk is quite cheap.

Disadvantages: Flex tester is really expensive.

Time

Advantages: The test doesn’t take long so it don’t become tedious.

Disadvantages: because of the test being short could be considered a pointless test to do and boring.

Equipment

Advantages: Flex tester has accurate measurements

Disadvantages: using the bench, tape measure and chalk could come out with inaccurate measurements.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: Low level skill is needed because it’s a simple skill being used.

Disadvantages: because of the skill being low level this could lead to the test being tedious.

Muscular Endurance

Maximum amount of push ups

Objective:

To test how much muscular endurance in the upper body someone has by seeing the max amount of push ups someone can do.

Resources needed:

Press up mat and press up handles or non-needed in a flat facility.

How conducted:

You get into press up position which you place both hands on the press up matt if you get bad wrists you grab onto the press up handles shoulder width apart and extend your legs straight and you lower down and push up and you do as many press ups as you can until you cant physically do more.

Method of assessment:

To test the amount of upper body muscular endurance someone has by seeing how many push ups maximum someone can do.

How analysed:

Recording sheets of how many press ups someone has done.

Target group:

Sprinters, long distance runners

Reliability of test:

This test is reliable because the same action is repeated so results are easily recorded.

Validity of test:

This test is valid because it measures what it claims to measure which is the muscular endurance in the upper body and monitors the effect in the athletes physical development.

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: It doesn’t cost much to do and also can be self-monitored.

Disadvantages: press up mat and handles can be quite expensive.

Time

Advantages: Doesn’t really waste a lot of time.

Disadvantages: doing push ups for too long can become tedious.

Equipment

Advantages: Not much equipment is required and the handles reduce the risk of wrist injuries.

Disadvantages: not using handles can cause wrist injuries.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: it’s a straight forward skill so its easy to execute the skill.

Disadvantages: quite a number of unfit people cant hold them in a press up position so it becomes quite hard for them.

Speed

60m sprint

Objective:

To test the amount of speed someone has by timing how quick someone runs 60m in. you could use an

Resources needed:

Stop watches, whistle and a metre clicker to mark out 60m

How conducted:

A person stands at the 60m mark while you stand at the other end, the person says set for you to get ready and then blows the whistle for you to go when the whistle gets blown they start timing, then you sprint as fast as you can through the 60m mark then they stop timing and the time s set how quick you run 60m in.

Method of assessment:

To test the amount of speed someone has in running in seconds.

How analysed:

Stopwatch timed and recording sheets in seconds.

Target group:

Sprinters

Reliability of test:

The test is quite reliable because its sprinting over a short distance so similar/consistent times are ran but any timing mistakes can make it inaccurate.

Validity of test:

This test is valid because it measures what it claims to measure which is how quick someone can move there body over 60m.

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: equipment’s quite cheep.

Disadvantages: could be costly to use a track depending on the sports centres price.

Time

Advantages: short sprints don’t waste time.

Disadvantages: doing short sprints can become tedious.

Equipment

Advantages: metre clicker is accurate to measure 60m.

Disadvantages: stop watches could be faulty.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: Sprinting is quite a straight forward skill so it’s easy to do.

Disadvantages: sprinting is high intensity so some people might get stitches doing the test if there unfit.

Body Composition/ Somatotype

Body weighing and skinfold measurement

Objective:

To see the amount of muscle fat and bone someone has by measuring there weight and there skinfolds. Mesomorph, Ectomorph and Endomorph.

Resources needed:

Scales and skinfold calipers.

How conducted:

For the weight test the person needs to step on the scales in just shorts so the weight is more accurate and whatever it comes up on the dial in either KGs or stone is the person’s weight. Skinfold measurement you stretch out skin around the torso area and the skinfold calipers work like a pincer and you pinch the skin and on the dial of the calipers it comes up with how many mms there is in the skinfold.

Method of assessment:

To find out the somatotype someone has.

How analysed:

Body weighing: kg or stone, skinfold measurement: mm average for a male is 91mm and for a woman its 100mm.

Target group:

Suitable for all.

Reliability of test:

Body weighing is reliable because scales are accurate and if you weigh routinely every 12 hours, but the weight results can be affected by the amount of fluid in the body. The skinfold test is reliable because the skinfold calipers have accurate measurement but the measurements can vary through skill and experience.

Validity of test:

The body weighing test is valid because your weight is the first signs of what body composition you are. The skin fold measurement is not really valid to measure the percentage of body fat but it does indicate the body changes.

Advantages/Disadvantages

Cost

Advantages: Weighing regular is cheap because it don’t cost. Measuring skin folds regular doesn’t cost.

Disadvantages: The scales and the skin fold calipers together are quite expensive.

Time

Advantages: The test is short so it doesn’t waste any time.

Disadvantages: Being short considered as boring.

Equipment

Advantages: Both pieces of equipment have really accurate measurements.

Disadvantages: Scales can become faulty after a while.

Level of skill required by the person conducting test

Advantages: Low level skill and no physical activity so its an easy test.

Disadvantages: Because no physical activity and low level skill people a number of people will not want to do the test.