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1.3) Intracellular fluid makes up approximately 60-67% of total body fluid. With Intracellular fluid making up approximately 33-40% in both these compartments it is water making up a majority of the solvent in the different body compartments. The total body weight that the fluid makes up is about 60% in Men and about 55% in Women. This is lower due to the higher fat content.
Fluid Physiology: 2.1 Fluid Compartments. 2014. Fluid Physiology: 2.1 Fluid Compartments. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/FluidBook/fl2_1.php. [Accessed 13 February 2014].
An electrolyte is an electrically charged ion that can affect the amount of water in the body. It is also responsible for determining the acidity of the blood (alters PH). And is responsible for a change in muscle function.
Sodium maintains the osmotic pressure and volume of the extracellular fluid within the body. Whereas the intracellular fluid is controlled by potassium. By effecting these the body can effect the amount of fluid being drawn into the ECF and ICF.
2.1) Dehydration is a danger because the body requires water to maintain homeostasis. Water is also a key ingredient in blood volume. The less water in the blood the thicker it becomes.
The function of the skin have been impaired because the skin integrity itself is compromised. Depending on wound depth many problems can occur.
1st degree burns i? Superficial skin
2nd degree burns i? Some underlying skin damage
3rd degree burns i? All skin layers damage
After an area of the body has been burnt many things will happen. Including an increase in the amount of WBC that migrate to the area to help fight off infection and start repairing the body. Also the capillaries of the damaged area will be blocked off to prevent and blood loss. And to stop a possible entrance route for any blood infection.
Factors affecting the healing capabilities of the body can be categorised into 2 category’s Internal and External.
Internal i? Health status (any other illness that may prevent healing)
External i? Mechanical damage
Debridement of a wound can happen through many different methods. Including surgically, chemically or even by the body’ defence itself. Debridement is where unhealthy tissue is removed from the wound to aid healing.
The top 2 layers of the skin are used in a full thickness graft. These are the Dermus and EpiDermus.
3.1) OBS chart
Fluid balance chart
4.2) Hypertension is high blood pressure. This is where the blood in the artery is being forced around the body under a higher pressure than normal.
Arteriosclerosis is the thickening and hardening of the artery walls. Meaning that there is a loss in the elasticity of the artery wall.
Hypertension and Arteriosclerosis are often related. Due to the pressure hypertension puts on the arterial wall they lose their elasticity and become hard and thick (Arteriosclerosis)
Hypertension is referred to as ‘the silent killer’ due to the fact so many people are unaware that they have the disease. The signs and symptoms of hypertension are very discreet and can go un-diagnosed for a lifetime.
Cardiovascular disease and old age are often associated. This is because the development of the disease over time and the disease becoming worse with age. Some changes that can be to reduce the risk of developing the disease are improving diet, don’t live under stress for prolonged periods of time, tests for and hereditary factors.
If there is an increased amount of platelets in the blood and therefore you have a very high clotting factor then you may be at risk of a blockage in a blood vessel.
5.2) A blue or purple colouration of the skin is referred to as cyanosis.
Hypoxia is where an area of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Hypoxia can be generalized or local.
Ischemia is the insufficient blood flow to a tissue
Hypoxemic hypoxia is where the arterial content of O? insufficient. This can be caused by a pulmonary embolus or a sudden change in the environment pressure (Diving)
5.3) A tracheostomy is a surgical incision into the next. Opening the airway straight through a hole in the trachea.
Endotracheal is a type of tracheal tube inserted through the mouth or nose.
Both are a type of tracheal tube that’s purpose is to act as a catheter to establish and maintain a airway. And to ensure enough oxygen gets into the body to allow adequate gas exchange.
5.4) Anaemia is a decrease in the number of RBC or less than normal amount of haemoglobin. This will cause the patient to complain of SOB due to lack of oxygen being supplied to the body due to the lack of haemoglobin.
5.5) The problems that Paul is experiencing with breathing can be due to the muscle spasm down the airway. And the swelling narrows the airway makes it difficult for Paul to breathe. An increase in the production of mucus also explains the wheeze in Pauls breathing. This is because the air being exhaled is being forced through mucus.
6.1) If left untreated then the appendix will rupture causing toxicity in the body. In some extreme cases this poisoning of the body can cause death.
6.2) Because without fibre in the diet stools become difficult to pass. Causing a higher pressure and stronger muscle contraction to be needed. Over a prolonged period this causes damage to the intestine.
6.3) Bile is required to breakdown and aid digestion. If the bile duct is blocked then this would hinder the digestion of some protein and fats. The is because of the bile not reaching the areas that it is meant to. This would mean the body would not be able to absorb essential nutrients during the digestive process meaning there would be a deficiency in the body.
6.4) Jaundice (Yellow skin)
Pale colour stool.
8.2) BP increase amount of oxygen to muscles. Vasodilation aids this. Heart beat increase rate of blood pumps around the body and increases the amount of gas exchange occurring in the lungs to help the muscle fuel. Resp Rate increases to allow as much oxygen as possible into the body and to get rid of the CO2. This all allows muscles adequate energy for a fight or flight response.
9.1) When blood enters the kidney (Site of urine formation) it passes through juxtaglomerular that detect blood pressure and blood volume before entering the nephron. When in the Nephron blood needs to be under pressure to force out fluid and solutes (smaller than protein) After reabsorption occurs the remaining waste is urine. Without a suitable BP or BV this wouldn’t occur.
10.1) Concave lenses. This is because the positive diopetes of myopic eye. This will help her see things further away
10.2) Sensorineural deafness – Degeneration or damage to the nerve, neuron and receptor cell.
The MP3 caused damage to the nerves in the ear and the neurons of the auditory cortex. This is more serious than conductive deafness as it effects the ability to hear both conduction routes (Air conduction and Bone conduction)
Conduction deafness – Something interferes with sound vibration waves. This means that waves do not reach the inner ear fluid (Ear wax and Blockage)