Throughout history of health care policy makers they were challenged to develop powerful leadership skills
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for future nurses leaders. Therefore there was a need to develop different contemporary leadership styles and
behaviors, other than those theories known before. Contemporary leadership styles is not just a group of skills
or missions, it is rather an attitude that value on the collaboration and effective teamwork. Contemporary
leadership is dynamic relationship that will lead the leaders and followers to a higher level of moral and
teamwork development. (Lanier & Rose, 2008).
Effective leaders as reflected in this literature of leadership, is one who is having the ability to create a
healthy environment that will affect the motivation, efficiency, and effectiveness of their employees. In
addition a good leader needs to have different leadership styles and attitude, and need to know in which
situation he/she can evidence a particular approach. Furthermore in order for good leaders to drive their
organization forward they need to practice authority, and help their employees to motivate, plan, lead,
control, organize and achieve their goals and activities. (Jenkins, 2009).
This paper covers briefly seven contemporary leadership styles: quantum leadership, charismatic leadership,
transactional leadership, transformational leadership, shared leadership, and servant leadership.
Also in this assay I will discusses and examine effective leader from throughout the literature and how
leaders can develop effective leadership styles that will impact successfully on the organization. Mainly by
exploring and comparing between two famous forms of contemporary leadership approaches, the
transactional and transformational leadership styles. Thin I will focus on my writing on one of the nursing
leaders that inspired me, what were her leadership styles, and what makes her a good leader in my view, and
what I think she was lacking as a leader.
Contemporary leadership styles
Quantum leadership is based on important strategies, such as building capacity, thinking, planning, and
working in collectively. In one of the research study program conducted by Jennifer Milewski, she
developed seven drives of effective quantum leadership which are building strong community relationship,
open the way for the community initiative, find source of power in society, deal with difficult and complicated
tasks, build relationships with other systems, motivate employee for continuous learning, and bring the future
to the present. (Milewski, 2006). What makes quantum good is that the leadership is shared activity and
skills between the leader and employee in the health care system because all the staff and patient can have
access to the information not only the leader. (Sullivan & Decker, 2009).
Leaders how are having charismatic personality characterizes by being dynamic, with attractive and
magnetic personality, and they inspire their followers through their speech. What makes this style strong and
powerful is that people follow the leader speech regardless of the content of their message without the need
for providing evidence and they usually value religion and politics more than facts, on the other hand
charismatic is limited because followers today are more knowledgeable and aware and they will not listen to
any leader easily without providing evidence based practice. (Mc Crimmon, 2007). Martin Luther King is
good example for this style.
Transactional leadership is about exchanging socially whereby the leader and follower are expected to give
and receive social, political, physiological, and economical benefit. In this style leaders are expected to
motivate, enhance and meet their employee goals, objectives, and loyalty within the scope of their practice
and policy, moreover transactional leader work on day to day operation, it is like when you are asked to work
overtime hours and on the other hand you expect to receive bonus. (Sullivan & Decker, 2009).
Transformational leadership as defined by Burns is based on motivating, inspiring and empowering both
leader and follower, and to work side by side to achieve and maintain the vision and preferred future.
Transformational leader see themselves as a changing agent, lifelong learner, believes in people and able to
handle and manage complex task. Transactional leadership has been the basis for the nursing administration
curriculum. (Malloch & Porter, 2006).
Relational leadership or connective leadership as introduced by Klakovich is based on flexible
management that will motivate health care team, clients, and families. She also explained that this approach
focuses in creating and strengthens interconnection between and among multidisciplinary team. (Klakovich,
The manager usually shows relational leadership element when convening the multidisciplinary team to plan
or change the patient care program, and this will break the hierarchical relationship and lead all member to
develop leadership at all level in the organization. (Sullivan & Decker, 2009).
Shared leadership is based on the principle of relationships, partnerships, discussion, and understanding
the limit. This approach shares the managing and leading responsibilities between two or more leaders since
they donaa‚¬a„?t expect that one leader has the ability and knowledge to handle and manage all tasks effectively.
(Sullivan & Decker, 2009).
Servant leadership approach is suggested to support nursing staff in patient care where extra expectation
and support are required from the managers, it is also ensure quality nursing care where there is increase the
demand on nursing work force. In health care environment itaa‚¬a„?s believed that the work will be enhanced and
be more effective with more servant- oriented management approach. (Jenkins & Stewart, 2010).
By the end, each leadership model is attempting to persuade the followers to follow their management
strategies for the greater success of the organization.
Effective leader and leadership
Leadership is defined in many way but all of them agree that it is a process that influence individual, team,
or the community to achieve their goal. It can be formal or informal depending on the leader authorities and
personal skills. (Sullivan & Decker, 2009).
Effective leader must be able to influence, empower, and motivate the follower to participate for the
effectiveness of the organization. (Chen, Beck, & Amos, 2005).
Mcshane and Vonglinow in 2005 listed some important characteristic and skills for effective leadership, those
include but not limited to intelligent, confidence, motivation, knowledgeable about the business, integrity,
command and emotional intelligent, and these skills will enable the leaders to be effective and strong with
any leadership style they are following.
One reason that might affect the development of effective leader is when a new leader is surprised that
people who promoted them are not following, especially in health care system where leadership position is
given without strong educational background and experience. Therefore the leader must develop better ways
for managing, leading, and convincing their follower. They should be able to negotiate, and satisfy their
employees in order to drive the organization forward. (Karlene, 2008).
In nursing career leaders who function beyond the classic leadership style are needed, that will provide a
direct contact between nurses and their manager in order to create positive work environment specially where
retaining nurses are becoming a great challenges. (Amany, Susan, & Mary, 2009).
Through my reading I realized that effective leader must practice authority, empower and motivate
employees to face their fears, and enable them to share in decision making process and by being intelligent in
selecting the most effective leadership style that works with different changes in the organization, can have a
major impact on the successful of the organization.
Moreover maintaining and stabilizing the organization after achieving the success and desired vision is critical
for the progression to continue.
Transactional and transformational leaderships
Many researchers have conducted to examine the most effective model between transactional and
transformational leadership theories. The difference between both of them where first recognized by Weber
1998, who said that transactional leadership power is based on controlling the basis of knowledge and leaders
usually aim to compromise and negotiate with followers in order to achieve higher efficiency, and they
promote subordinates to complete their successful. On the other hand in transformational approach leaders
have charismatic character that aim to transform employees and help them to change ways of thinking by
using new ideas, and leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and encourage them to solve
problems. (Kotlyar, & Karakowsky, 2006).
Other studies have related transformational and charismatic approaches; both are similar by attracting and
enhancing followers. In contrast charismatic inspires followers superficially; however charismatic is certainly
a shot of transformational leader. (Bass & Bass,2008).
what I can’t forget and still wander in my mind when she said to me: always follow your intuition and answer the hidden voice inside you, whenever you feel that something wrong is going on with your patient even if you are sure that she is clinically stable, and that is just feeling, don’t ignore it and check her continuously till that feeling leave you. Later I realized that sometimes such feeling is harbinger.