Energy Systems Assignment Task

For example: goalie position is in the aerobic glycolysis (breakdown of glucose) system. They are treading water in one position until someone takes a shot. When someone takes a shot, the goalie has to react fast and powerful to get maximum power.

Utility players are going as fast as possible for the entire game.

Center forward plays at a med-high speed, generally in the anaerobic system throughout the entire game.

3. ATP-PC System

ATP is a complex chemical compound stored in the mitochondria. The compound consists of a large molecule called adenosine (A) and three smaller molecules called phosphates (P). Each of the phosphates is held together by high energy bonds.

Phosphate
P
P
P
ADENOSINE
High Energy Bonds

Energy When the last phosphate has detached, energy stored in bonds between the phosphates becomes available and this is transferred to the cells. In the Muscle cells, the energy from ATP allows the fibres to contract and make movement possible.

The heat and energy are released as the bond between the two end phosphates breaks

Adenosine Diphosphate

High Energy Bonds
P
P

ADENOSINE This is now referred to as ADP (adenosine diphosphate) because it doesn’t have all three phosphates attached.

You can gain the phosphate back by resting. When you’re resting, creatine phosphate steps in and resynthesise, that is, reattaching the phosphate and restoring the ATP which has been party destroyed. Creatine and Phosphate are also held together by high energy bonds.

High energy bonds

C = P
Creatine Phosphate

The bond between creatine and phosphate breaks down, releasing energy.

C P

Energy

The energy released drives the free phosphate (Pi) back to join ATP.

P
ADENOSINE
P
Pi

ENERGY

ATP is brought back to its normal form and the cycle is continued until CP/PC supplies are exhausted.

Phosphate
High Energy Bonds
P
P
P
ADENOSINE

The ATP-PC/CP system is a predominant energy system when there is a swim off at the start of the game, when there is a fight for the ball, when there is high intensity sprinting for the ball against your opponent and when goalie is reaching for the ball to save. This system has no by products and last for around 10 seconds.

4. Lactic Acid System

When you have gone through your ATP-PC system completely (CP is exhausted), you move into the next best system, anaerobic glycolysis/lactic acid. This system last for around 2min 90sec but it depends on the intensity of the workout.

Lactic acid/anaerobic glycolysis system produces energy for high intensity activities to medium intensity activities. When you’re working out in the anaerobic glycolysis system, the lactic acid builds up in your muscles because oxygen is not available. This causes a burning sensation, shortness in breath and fatigue. The lactic acid uses glycogen to produce energy.

An example of lactic acid in water polo is when you’re in defence, you’re chasing the attacker for a time longer than 10 seconds, and hence you’re in the anaerobic glycolysis system. This system’s by product is lactic acid and the main fuel is carbohydrates. An advantage from this system is that it is fast and good for burning carbohydrates. A disadvantage from this system is that is only last for 10 seconds. This system is generally used in team sports.

5. Aerobic Glycolysis

Workouts that last for a period of 3 minutes to 2 hours are in the aerobic system. This system is oxygen required and is used generally for slow egg beater/treading water or defence (water polo). There are 3 main fuels; the best is carbohydrates, then fats, then protein. The by products are sweat/H?o and Co?. This system last from 3 minutes to 2 hours. This is an efficient system particularly for its long time frame and consistent speed. A disadvantage from this system is that it is at medium-low intensity. This system creates the highest amount of energy of the three, although it works at the lowest intensity.

At the start of a workout, oxygen cannot reach the muscles until the next couple of minutes so you have to rely on the anaerobic systems for that short amount of time.

The aerobic system is broken down into three sections:

Glycolysis

Krebs cycle/citric acid cycle

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

Glycolysis

Glycolysis is the breakdown of carbohydrates in the form of glycogen of glucose into pyruvic acid.

The Krebs Cycle

The Krebs cycle is the second phase in the process of aerobic metabolism. Pyruvic acid that was produced in the stage of glycolysis enters the mitochondria and is instantly converted to acetyl coenzyme which combines with oxaloacetic acid that forms citric acid. Other chemical reactions occur to make enough energy to resynthesise 2 ATP molecules.

Other chemical reactions occur to resynthesise 2 ATP molecules. The by-products of this include CO2 (carbon dioxide), H (Hydrogen) this process is called a cycle because the the starting product is oxaloacetic acid is also the finishing product.

Electron Transport Chain (ETC)

The hydrogen from the krebs cycle is transported into the inner membranes of the mitochondria where it is split into a electron and a proton. The electrons are then put through a series of redox reactions. This releases quite a lot of energy and can resynthesise ATP.

6. Centre forward

Centre forward is one of the hardest positions to be in. It takes up a lot of energy to play in. Centre forward sits in the opponent’s goals and wrestles for the ball until they get the ball and then sprints down to their goal to get in a good position to shoot. The predominant system they’re in is Lactic acid/anaerobic glycolysis. They do not get a long time to recover from this so sometimes they slip into aerobic glycolysis/oxygen system. When they’re sprinting, they’re at their full potential, so they’re using what is left of their energy, therefore they are in their ATP system.

ATP

Lactic Acid

Oxygen

10%

60%

30%

7. Lactic Acid Build Up

The percentage of lactic acid is reasonably high (60%) during a centre forwards game. This may bring them down so they’re in the oxygen system for the other percentage of time. The build-up of lactic acid is bringing down their potential to play at their best. To be able to play more, they need to have a recovery. They’re in recovery time when they’re waiting to tackle for the ball. This is the only time they basically get to recover. Oxygen is the key to getting rid of lactic acid. You need a minute to get enough into you to recover.