The universe, everything will change this world everything goes. Society, as a large system, in science and technology become increasingly developed, the rapid improvement of people’s living standard, they also forced us to face one another social problem: The first is the living space needed for the growing and the existing living space very small contradictions, raising concerns about the future of the Concerned; and the real social problems which also plague the people day after day, prompting people to reflect on these issues. Positivism is a product of social change is that people are a reflection of social issues, and its produce to the community has made great contributions to the ensuing also include the limitations of positivism. This essay will talk about the meaning and development of positivism, and then it will show the contribution of positivism and its limitation. The essay also focuses every positivist who makes a significant contribution for positivism.
When people want to know the contribution of positivism in society, then they hope to discuss critical of positivism. Firstly they should know what is positivism? What is it time to start, what are the reasons of origin, and other development? (J H Bridges, Robert Speller and Sons 1957) Positivism is a kind of sensory experience stress, rejection of Western metaphysics, the philosophical schools. Empirical positivism was as a form of expression, resulting in the 19th century, 30 to 40 years in France and Britain. Before that, I. Newton, D. Hume’s empiricism has been involved in empirical question, and the early 19th century French utopian socialists H. Saint-Simon first use “positivism”. However, strictly speaking, the founder of positivism is the French philosopher, sociologist A. Comte. From 1830 onwards, Comte successively its six volumes of this “evidence-based philosophy tutorial,” marked the formation of positivism. In accordance with the views of Comte, positivism, broadly speaking, (Comte 1844) philosophical and political system by the composition, the former is the foundation, and next one is a huge system of purpose; narrow to say that Comte founded positivism that is empirical philosophy. Comte that the history of mankind from superstition or metaphysics of science process. When the communities of scientists manage the society, people entered the reality phase.
After Comte’s positivism, Durkheim righted to be amended and created his own new theory of social fact. What is social fact? (Hadden, p. 104) Durkheim defined social facts as things is the fact that external coercion, which is to create a collective strength rather than from individuals. While they may not seem to be observable, social facts are things, and “are to be studied empirically, not philosophically” (Ritzer, p. 78).
Social Facts: When I perform brother, husband, or citizens, when I carry out my contract, my responsibility, so I define the responsibilities, external to myself and my behavior, in law and custom. Even if they meet my own emotions, I feel that their subjective reality, which is still objective, because I did not create them, I just through my education, inheritance them. (Durkheim Rules, p. 1).
As examples of social facts, Durkheim cites religious beliefs, currency used to undertake transactions, and factors such as “the practices followed in my profession” (Durkheim Rules, p. 2).
These types of behavior or thought are not only outside the individual, but, in addition, to give to force them to impose his own virtue, his personal will to the transfer. (Durkheim Rules, p. 2).
Subsequently, a number of philosophers and scientists of the Comte’s positivist philosophy be revised to exclude an epistemological doctrine, promoting a new philosophy of science, there has been Machism and logical positivism.( J. T. Blackmore, R. Itagaki, and S. Tanaka 2009) E. Mach believe that the real science is a fine phenomenology, that is the exact description of a person feels, including this one from where they found some of the rules. He was opposed to the introduction of atomic physics and chemistry, and to a positivist tone of voice, said: “You really see it?” To the 20th century, Positivism and B. Russell and AN Whitehead’s combination of basic mathematics and become the Vienna school of logical positivism lord. Therefore, the history of the positivism is divided into two types: the early positivism known as the old positivism, logical positivism, also known as neo-positivism. Since the days of self-Comte, positivism, who has been graded to be organized on various subjects? From the oldest and the most basic physics to social sciences, each science are assumed to be restored to a sub-1 level, so almost all science and all branches of physics.
Genially, (Comte 1844) positivist thought in general the pursuit of scientific facts can be observed, verifiable, and that the predictable future society must be good. Positivism on this attitude of society in the future there are similarities with the utopian socialism, positivism, the contribution of other obvious trend is that it track to track the development of science and scientific development process of the absorption of the factors conducive to philosophical reflection. In short, positivism is a major benefit from the development achievements of modern science and philosophy, but the birth of science to the philosophy of conversion factor is the overall development of modern Western society.
The existence of things is a double-edged. Positivism defect is very clear: First, (Alfred Schutz, George Walsh, and Fredrick Lehnert 1967) it over-emphasized the phenomenon, namely, the importance of perceptual knowledge, ignoring rational thought in the history of contributions to human civilization. This caught in inductive way of thinking. Second, (M Weber 1978) it ignores the people’s awareness, particularly the limitations of perceptual knowledge, but to perceptual knowledge extended to the whole of human history. Means that as long as the positivism of cognition, in any era is all that can be perceived, but people know the reality not the case. Third, positivism not seems to realize that natural scientific approach congenitally deficient. Therefore, people can also make such a positivist criticism. Then positivism is not a panacea theory, is that many positivists themselves think so too, therefore, on some issues people can and must be positivism to the study, in some other issues; people will need to use some other ways to solve the problem, such as rationalism, not only positivism.
Then the famous positivist Comte’s positivism is a kind of sensory experience stress, exclusion metaphysical schools of Western philosophy, Comte use it to try to distinguish and thus to replace the traditional philosophy of idealism and materialism. Comte’s positivism is the idealism of Berkeley and Hume’s empiricism and Newton’s mechanistic philosophy of combination. It is in this experience, tradition, inspired by the positivist philosophy of Comte from which extends the theory out. Positivism, empiricism has inherited the basic viewpoints of the past, that the origin of all the issues on the world belong to metaphysics, but only what is the philosophy of phenomenology should be studied. (A Comte 1988)Comte advocated everything should be based on the point of view the phenomenon as a starting point, only those who really based on knowledge are scientific. Positivist philosophy of Comte first three stages of the development of the human mind of the inspection, the second is an empirical interpretation of the spirit. Comte’s sociology, said that he was mainly from the positivist point of view, put forward the idea of building a modern society. In addition, (A Comte 1979)Comte is divided into social statics and social dynamics the two blocks of sociology, Social Statics study of social system and social structure, this is not to consider the social system of basic movement, to study the various components of the system between the roles and counterproductive law. It corresponds to the order. Social dynamics, which research development and changes in the social system, the laws, the core was social progress. This distinction is not a distinction between two types of facts, but the distinction between two aspects of the theory order and progress, statics and dynamics, are always interrelated. However, (M J Smith 1998) Comte focus only on his own during this period of European cultural values, there is no more comprehensive look at the definition of positivism; his study has limitations and is in a particular environment, a study is not comprehensive.
(B Agger 2007) Durkheim’s contributions mainly have social facts, social aspects, and division of labour and sociological approaches. According to social facts and social aspects he has a strong social structure point of view, in every one of us is subject to these social facts, and how we must adapt to these means. Durkheim believed that the division of labor does not lead to social disintegration, but the change in the form of social solidarity provides a useful method of study of modern society. However, there are some problems with his opinion such as actions, consensus, solidarity and common Consciousness. Although there are common ethical in our society in many aspects, there is one in similar circumstances, a person acting in various ways there are also many opportunities. Durkheim may be aware of this possibility, but he did not seem to have anything to say about the nature of human motivation. He was too concerned about the larger structural problem. human action or human action is unlikely that the theory is limited. Weber’s action or models, such as symbolic interactionism the most recent here, some of the methods will prove more useful. While doing thinking of Durkheim on social unity and a source of useful contribution, which usually seems to be his only concern. Durkheim and structure of the functional approach with the difficulties of the latter is almost completely ignored the conflict and power differences.
(Laurence D. Smith 1988)Laurence D. Smith (Author) aˆ? Visit Amazon’s Laurence D. Smith PageAfter Durkheim, logical positivism empirical basis in logic as a tool for reasoning, using probability theory to correct conclusions. It is believed that the scientific study of human behavior is the only correct way. Logical positivism that: a question of fact that only recourse to observation alone. Let’s say the logical positivism of the “logical.” Logic is an important tool for logical positivism. One is the scientific methodology of inductive logic, and the second is to create a semantic study of its interpretation of the logic. (M.W. Wartofsky 1984) The scientific concept of logical positivism does exist significant deficiencies, in which one of the most fundamental flaws is the humanistic significance of science and humanistic values of neglect. In accordance with logical positivism of science and scientific interpretation of Marxism, “Science was seen as a kind of beyond the human or higher than the human nature becomes a self-existing entity, or be deemed to be a kind of detached from the on which it depends and development of the human condition, needs and interests of the mother’s ‘thing’ “
In conclusion, Positivism is a manifestation of social progress, it is a kind of social development and people’s thinking, and positivism is a philosophical genre, which is the empiricism of the evolution. It is an important component of Western philosophy, but there are also right to criticize the views of positivism, Western scholars have also put forward their own views, New Kantianism, Functionalism, Structuralism, Exchange theory Symbolic Interactionism Behaviorism and Post-modernism, etc., on the evidence ism expressed doubts and make their own good reasons. So people need to be more substantial look at these theories to better use than them.