Ethics is similar value and moral, in business ethics are doing something and decision, that not right or wrong, it is depend on people how to treat and feel it. In business, all care about is money, it will done everything because of money. They even not care about to do that thing have moral or not. They just think about that done about have valuable or not. Business ethics is doing not have correct or wrong, it is depend how much you can covered by your conscience.
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Define the follow Concepts:
In business ethics, there have five concepts, which are contractual rights, ethics of virtue, legal rights, principles of fair equality opportunity, and utilitarianism. Those concepts can to guide or to be an example for the business to conduct.
Contractual rights is the rights based on the contract, either one party of the contract breach the contract, the other party can to sued the breach of contract. It is an agreement between two or more people mutual benefit but do not necessarily involve in mutual supportiveness. The right is based on the contract, if the contract does not have mention about, then might not can to sue the other party because in this theory is based on the contractual rights. No contract, no agreement, and then no right to complain or sue the other party.
In business, everything is made by the contract that can secure both party benefit and loss. Contractual right can to secure people have the right to made contract and sue people who is breach of contract. Both parties have the right to sue other party based on the contract.
For example, buyer and the seller, they have to sign a contract for seller must have supply A4 paper 1000 sets. Buyer has the right the sue seller because supply A3 paper to them, instead of A4 paper. Both party have right to sue each other if they have something are not followed by the contract. Or the seller can sue the buyer if the buyer is late or do not have pay the installments.
Ethics of virtue is an approach to ethics that rule, and particular acts focus on the kind of people who acting. Ethics of virtue is the person when is a kid, parents or people who relative to effect the person. Ethics of virtue is important for business ethics because in business people must trust other people. And the trust is come from the virtue ethics. Ethics of virtue is that value and characteristic on the person, is based on the person culture, background, moral, and value. Obligation is not morally sufficient for virtue. To compare virtues and moral character is duties or rules and that consequence of actions.
In business, businessmen or businesswomen believe that trust. Although they have to sign contract, before this action, they must have a trust between each other. Some of the business is do not have use contract, they use trust to their each other, such as allow owing the money for doing the business. If do not have any trust for the business party or other party, it might make the business hard to conduct. They are allow to owing money is not a small amount, if they each other do not have trust between them. How come a person to believe and allow to owing the money?
For example, to do a business must have a virtue ethics, such as be honest. Nowadays, to do businesses are cannot to cheat other party, customers already to be smarter, they are know you are cheating them. Once they are known you are cheating them, they are not to deal with you anymore. They would not to do a business with a dishonest businessman, and it will to spoil the business images because the person who deals with you, they will spread out what you did.
This ethics theory should be right based that legal rights are that legal guaranteed power available to a legal. It can claims to rights, such as property, work, privacy, speak, and clean environment. Such as people have the right have a clean and good environment to live, they have right to live in a good environment. But some of the people to spoil and dirty up the environment, such as thrown rubbish in river, spitting, and so on. People have the right to live in a good environment, maybe some of the people are not like to live in good and clean environment but they have no right to discourage other people have right to live in good and clean environment.
In business, right do not have correct or wrong, there are only have positive and negative right. Positive right is that right is good for anyone; negative right is that might have some of people do not thing that is good or bad for anyone. Such as, a people smoke not right or wrong, in the smoker, they have a right to smoke, but for people who surround the smoker have the right do not have breathed in the second smoke. Positive right is smoker has a right to smoke, the negative right is people have a right to choose does not breathe in the secondhand smoke.
For example, people have a right to sell or not to anyone. Businessmen have their own right to decide to sell what kind of product, and they have right to selling to whom. Unfortunately, government have to interfere with the business, no one can to in charge the business without government. But businessmen have the right to choose which party they want to collaborate with.
Principles of fair equality of opportunity is mean everyone have a fair enough opportunity in every fields. To be fair or have an equality of opportunity that should have not any discrimination, include culture, religion, race, gender, age, and so on. Have an equality opportunity is very difficult to gain and it have happened in everywhere. Hard to prevent or avoid this thing happened. If to fair enough to everyone, it will to make happened more because to given more chance to everyone to try to do. More chance to try that can have more answer at all. In business, company or businessmen are discrimination of gender, age, culture, race, and so on to hiring or dealing with. Discrimination people might get sued by the people.
For example, a company to hire a staff cannot to depend on the staff background, culture, region, and gender; it might get sued by the candidate. Or a business deal because of the gender or race. Many businesses were done by the gender, it might consider as bribe. Some kinds of businesses are not dealing with women, because discrimination women capable, they are doubt women capable. Have an equality of opportunity that can to help the business going up, maybe the people who are discriminated by the person, they can maximum the job, to done as well. Different people have different capable, should to give a chance for everyone, just for done as well in the job. Also that do not discrimination any position of job, even a cleaning worker is important for a company.
Utilitarianism is takes into consideration opportunity cost and benefit, and to give satisfaction to other. It should choose the option that brings greater to most people. It can to maximum the good and minimum the harm, and it has to decide what is good.
There have two types of utilitarianism which is act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism is performing that act to leads to greatest good for greatest, it is use an action to greatest to people, such as charity, donation, and so on. Each individual action is to be evaluated directly utility principle. In business it will do the charity and something for social responsibility in order to build a good image to the company.
For example, a company to give salary to the worker in return working for company, the salary for the workers is very important because the money can to give they eat, sleep, drink, clothes, and even to pay the daily use expenses. It is to greatest good and to give greatest for most people. To using an action to give a happiness to people, such as donate money to beggar.
Other utilitarianism is rule utilitarianism; it is based on the rule to give the greatest people. Rule have significant place, and cannot be compromised for protect at all. It is behavior that evaluated by rules, if universally followed would lead to the greatest good for the greatest.
For example, to give a greastest based on the rule, it might as the law. Only the rule can to protect, secure, and to give the greatest, it will help to give a good thing. The rules are come from the law, and the law will secure the benefit for everyone. In business, businessmen or businesswomen use the rule to secure their business. Such as, the method to do business is very important, need to understand the rule of different business, or sign contract.
In conclusion, the concepts of ethics are example to give businessmen or businesswomen know that to do business must have conscience, and that also nowadays the thing do not have. Five concepts have business ethics that are contractual rights, ethics of virtue, legal rights, principles of fair equality of opportunity, and utilitarianism.
2. Do you agree with the claims that (i) future generations have no rights, and (ii) the future generations to which we have obligations actually include only the generation that will immediately succeed us? Explain your answer. If you do not agree with these claims, state your own views and provide arguments to support them.
Introduction: What is Right?
Rights are an equitable that can have it to everyone that is a power to everyone. Everyone have a power to decide their own things how to going on. For a company they have copyrights that to prevent other company to copy they product packaging or logo. Human have a rights to choose what they want actually, even a kid also have a rights to choose what they want. But many people are like to decide for everyone, they are discouraging people to choose what they want, such as parent, friends, and sibling.
Do Not Agree Future Generations have No Right
I am not agree future generations have no rights, everyone come to this world should have their own rights. For future generations also, they have their own rights to decided by themselves. Parents should try to let children to make decision, maybe decision is wrong, and at least, the decision is decided by them. They are not regret about the wrong decision. Future generations should have rights to choose what they are wanted actually. Future generations are our future hope, should to bring a best thing to them.
Education, future generations have own opinion, perception, and they have rights to selection or decide what they future. Such as parents to arrange the children go to other country to further study, or to disallow the children to choose what they want. Parents are not consider the child do not want to go oversea for further study. Some of parents will interfere with children study, maybe the children are like to draw, and have talent to draw, want to be artist, but parents hope the child to be an accountant or be professional, do not like a child to be artist. To stop the child dream but the child has rights to decide what career they want. Many workers are not satisfying their job because they doing the job are not they like. Maybe some workers are forced by parents; they are not hope to do so. Have a lot of people will to do what the parents hope, after that, they will change the career, or even go to study again for interest.
Furthermore, nowadays people have educated, they know what are they can to have and right. They would not to keep quiet; they are known what rights they have. Formerly, government are controlled publish the truth and information to the citizens for prevent citizens know what right they should have. Nowadays, citizens can to know and find out the truth and information through the internet. Future generations also have the rights to choose what the choices they want, such as they have rights to decide what they want to do, purchase, eat, sleep, and drink. They have to choose by themselves. Parents are very nervous their children, everything are done for children, do not know what children want.
In my opinion, people should to do something to secure future generations have to know and can to keep on to other future generations. The obligations for future generations there are to protection environment and give a freedom selection.
Parents or other people cannot to make a decision for the future generations; they have rights to decide by their own. Future generations have the rights live in a good environment that they have a right to choose what environment to live. They have the rights to breath in every air are pure and fresh; do not have any haze mix with the air. Nowadays, water, air and noise are polluted by human; the future generations might not have a good environment for the rest of the life. Besides that, some kind of animals and plants are facing extinct because of human are not save the planet. Human are always wasted natural resource and to polluted environment.
Air pollution, future generations have rights to choose what air to breath in, they have rights to decide how fresh the air breath in, but children might need to wear mask for prevent breath in that air are destroying their lung. Have a lot of the mill, factory, manufactures are doing some kind of business that polluted air. To burn the chemical in order for produce the product, and the haze will spread out and in the air.
Water pollution, water is very important for our life that is cannot lack of. Has a lot of the company using water to conduct business, at same time, the company is the most pollute water. Such as, company thrown some liquid have chemical in the rivers or seas. Besides polluted water, people are wasted water. Water on earth that only have 1/3 water is can to drink, 2/3 water is cannot drink that is salt water. If human waste or polluted water, in future, the future generation might do not have clear water for drink, even will have a war caused by water.
Noise pollution, noise pollution is very effect people think and emotion. The sound will make people going in bad emotion because the sound too noise. Such as, developer to building house nearby the school or surround the houses, the sound effecting the student study when developer to building the house, sure have come out some of the sound. Future generations have right to having a quiet and nice environment to study or live in. They would not hope have a noise sound surround their life.
Animals and plants extinct, future generations have rights to know, discovery, see, and explore animals and plants, but nowadays, animals and plants are very rare, almost going to extinct. Animals and plants going to extinct because businessmen or businesswomen to mining trees, sure the trees will die and animals are loss shelter and die also. Future generations have right to know and see the animals, soon and later, future generation may not know how a trees or animals look.
The obligation for environment is protection environment. For water, people should do not waste water, overuse or wasted. Company should not throw the cabbage or chemical liquid thrown in the rivers or seas. Company should to reduce the products are destroy through the air. Or use something can to replace that chemical which are release on the air. Such as air-conditioner have release a gas that destroy atmosphere to be thin enough, after that the UV light will directly come in the earth and human, animals, and planet will die caused of the UV light. Nowadays, air-conditioner release that gases are replace by another gas that do not have destroy our atmosphere.
To prevent the developer developing the building make the noise, they should to developing the building is making sure done everything. Such as the building was built up already, and if some of the houses need to decoration the houses should to decoration when the building not yet allow people stay in. to reduce the noise, or the machine changes to silent machine.
Animals and plants extinct because of the human mining trees after did not to re-plant in on the jungle. It is made the animals and plant extinct. Human should re-plant on the plant which is mined.
Resources, businessmen or businesswomen are should not to wasted and use up the natural resource. Future generations have rights to use the natural material, but nowadays have a lot for natural materials are almost used up. The obligation of the human are to reuse the materials, such as recycle paper, tin, and so on. Do not wasted the natural materials, and to be more environmental protection. Such as recycle, reuse, and to be vegetarian to reduce the natural materials will be used up.
In conclusion, future generations should have rights to choose what they want to do for future, such as education. And future generations have rights own any best environment and resource. Human should have obligations to take care and to succeed.