Discuss intelligence approaches to combating terrorism?
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In 2011, DOJ and FBI operate 104 Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) in the United States of America. Both the agencies includes 4,000 law interpreting officers and agents whose duty is to inquire the terrorism related events taking place in USA. To investigate terrorist plots their operations are highly tactual and focused on the investigation. Through investigation intelligence got constituted to restrict and defeat terrorist acts. JTTFs develop an important system to share intelligence news with FBI who further conveys it to other agencies to overpower terrorism. The other major work of these task forces is to develop harmony between low interpreting sources and the state with United States of America on intelligence related matters. The threat of homegrown jihadists occurred and the several top most security clearance issued to local police working with JTTF. A significant dilemma for law enforcement and intelligence officials who straddle the public realm of ideas and the secretive realm of terrorist operations is how to sift the law-abiding, nonviolent radical attracted to jihadist rhetoric from the would-be terrorist who merits targeting. The vast amount of terrorist-related material available on the Internet in a relatively anonymous setting attracts homegrown individuals open to radicalization. Many of these individuals may show great interest in radical content, engage in radical discourse, but not become terrorists. A growing pool of those who view jihadist as “cool” and engage in online “talk” may make it harder for police to identify actual terrorists. After 9/11 attacks law interpreting got more focused and prioritized factor of intelligence got highlighted in the inquiry process. Deputy Attorney General, Paul McNulty, while working described the law abiding sector focused, proactive and intelligence attitude towards terrorist acts and to prevent it for the security of the nation. Intelligence gathering is one of the basics in inquiring and get rid of any other emergence of terrorist attack in future.
Investigations require some level of factual predication, while an assessment does not.206 However; assessments are to follow a specifically articulated purpose. The guidelines have established six authorized purposes:
Check leads on individuals or activities,
Check leads on groups or organizations,
Collect information to analyze potential threats and vulnerabilities,
Gather information for intelligence analysis or planning,
Vet and manage the agency’s confidential human sources (informants), and
Collect foreign intelligence.
The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has criticized the FBI’s amassing of racial and ethnic data based on the new guidelines. It allows for the collection of information about ethnic or racial communities and justifies the gathering of such information for proactive purposes. The guidelines state that it should be done if it “will reasonably aid the analysis of potential threats and vulnerabilities, and, overall, assist domain awareness for the purpose of performing intelligence analysis. One ACLU official has described this as racial profiling of entire communities.
Discuss the role of state and local law enforcement?
Terrorist attacks take place in United States of America, whether from foreign or homegrown terrorists. The local and homegrown terrorist attacks and their propagation like weapons explosives and participants all take place in local territories. The whole plan of terrorist attack got prepared locally so, to prevent from these kind of attacks responsibility not only lies on central government it also the part of local and tribal government take action against it. On daily basis up to 17,000 officials gather investigation report suspicious individuals and incidents which as crime connect with any possible terrorism activity. The case of Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh. He was arrested after a traffic stop when Oklahoma State Trooper Charles J. Hanger noticed that McVeigh’s yellow 1977 Mercury Marquis had no license plate.233 Using his home state as an example, a former U.S. Attorney maintains that “evidence of a potential terrorist threat or organized criminal enterprise is far more likely to be found in the incidental contact with the 10,000 police officers in the state of Washington than by the less than 150 FBI agents assigned to the Seattle Field Division. The role of state tribal and local both are very important because any kind of intriguing act take place locally security agencies should be high alert to take action against it as soon as it occurs because it may be connected to any kind of terrorism activity which will harm the nation on high extent further to check and balance locally will help to detect brutal terrorists. The Nationwide Suspicious Activity Report Initiative (NSI) is a program to push terrorism-related information generated locally between and among federal, state, local, and tribal levels. Specifically, it is a framework to support the reporting of suspicious activity—from the point of initial observation to the point where the information is available in the information sharing environment.245 It is a standardized, integrated approach to gathering, documenting, processing, analyzing, and sharing information about suspicious activity that is potentially terrorism-related while protecting the privacy and civil liberties of Americans. The intent is for this locally generated suspicious activity reporting to be combined in a systematic way with other sources of intelligence at the federal level to uncover criminal activity, including terrorism.
Discuss investigative approach to combating terrorism?
To counter brutal terrorist approach activities, America’s law interpreting agencies divided investigation approach into two terms namely “Al- Capone” approach and “agent provocateurs”. The Al-Capone approach based on the investigation of the persons who are already convicted and under observation but on small scale cases like immigration issues etc. , not alleged by the terrorism allegation but whom connections exist with main terrorist persons.
While in the other approach Agent provocateurs are based on covert participation to render actual situation it is basically an undercover operation or investigation where an official became the participant of the situation and become their responsible partner to whom they rely and he facilitates them. The views on Al- Capone approach by its monikers are bit doubtful because it is already practiced on mafia level and also on white collar criminals. But if this procedure done with proper information gathering and research it can be helpful. If the officials focuses on the areas around different religious places of Muslims like mosques and Muslim communities it will help radically to counter a person who can be involved with jihadists in any manner to follow him and identify the source from where he is getting orders to facilitate them. Security agencies main focuses with in U.S Muslim communities.