Nutrition for Pregnant Women, Athletes and Children

Introduction to Nutrition
Genetically Modified Food

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Foods developed from organisms whose DNA is changed by applying methods of genetic engineering is known as Genetically Modified foods. Such techniques allow control over food’s generic structure and introduce new crop traits.


There is several genetic modified food, some of them are given below:

Pesticide resistant rape plants
Golden rice
Long-lasting tomatoes
Vaccination banana

GM foods are derived from organisms whose DNA has been modified artificially, these crops are to improve yield by providing resistance to plant diseases. In future, genetically modified foods will alter the nutrient content of foods by reducing it allergic portion or improving the efficiency of food production systems.

The main health concerns for new genetically engineered food revolve around being allergic or toxic through the engineered process. FDA reports that foods they have evaluated till now are not likely to cause an allergic or toxic reaction (McFadden, 2014).

Nonetheless stomach sections presented reasonable erosive/necrotic lesions in seven female rats but no one in the panels but no histology was done as these were deliberated to be of no prominence. Even though in senior humans who used aspirin to prevent thrombosis, this can cause life-endangering hemorrhage (Kok, 2014).

Benefits of GM food

Some opportunities to use GM foods for good are:

Better resistance against weeds, pest and other diseases; such as corn
Corn is widely grown and an essential grain in the United States.
Corn cannot be reproduced without human aid.

The below table shows that what % of food is modified in UAE:


In order to decide regarding the use and regulation of these genetically modified plants, one must be well informed and aware of this new technology.

Gestational and Maternal Nutrition
Key dietary guidelines for a pregnant woman

Eating a healthy diet during pregnancy is vital for both mother and baby. Nutritious diet can help you promote your baby’s growth and development.


Many whole-grain and enriched products contain carbohydrate, fiber and iron.

Meat, poultry, fish, eggs and beans

Protein is important for baby’s growth during second and third trimesters. Protein, B vitamins are present in foods of this group.

Dairy products

Dairy products are enriched with calcium. Calcium fortified soy milk helps to build baby bones.

Recommended supplements used during pregnancy

Supplement of folic acid is commonly recommended. Sources recommend 1200 mcg of folate (natural form) per day for maximum benefit.

To meet nutritional needs, pregnant women are encouraged to consume a rich, along a daily vitamin and mineral supplement.

Recommended food to eat

Avocados, Mangoes, Broccoli, Carrots & Spinach

DHA eggs & yogurt, Edamame beans

Lentils, Oatmeal


Foods to avoid

In order to not get ill or harm baby’s health, there are some foods that should be avoided.

Some types of cheese


Raw or partly cooked eggs & meat

Ice cream

Caffeine& herbal teas


Vitamin/fish oil supplements

Cold, cured meats


Fish & smoked fish

Milk & yogurt

Raw shellfish & sushi

Foods with soil on them

Nutritional needs of breast feeding mothers

Women are recommended to continue eating nutrition full diet similarly to how they were eating during their pregnancy. A breast-feeding woman requires 200 more calories than a pregnant woman provided that the calories come from nutritious foods.

While breast-feeding two to three servings of protein must be taken each day. Good sources of protein include:

Meat & Poultry
Seafood & Tofu
Dairy products
Dried beans

The foods that are avoided during pregnancy are also recommended to be avoided during breast feeding because it might cause an allergic reaction or harm to either mother or baby.

Nutritional requirements of Athletes
Key dietary guidelines for an athlete

For an athlete there is an excessive and well balanced diet, which is full of nutrition. As an athlete it is necessary to maintain the proper diet , there must be have proper balance of nutrients, minerals, vitamins and well as calories to improve the performance.


The supplements used by athlete are, BS-Vitamins, protein, omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil), vitamin D, magnesium, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)

Athletes requires more amount of nutrients they actually demand from their bodies than even almost equal fitness buffs in order to compensate with the help of nutrients, which can be obtained from foods or supplement, so that performance cab be remained for a long time.

In order to achieve them maximum level of performance, there are some recommended food to gain maximum carbohydrate storage, it is suggested by the experts that they need to get around70% of its calories from carbohydrates, along with pasta, fruits, cereals, vegetables etc.

Foods to avoid

There are some foods which are recommended to avoid for athletes, these foods are avoidable to meet with the maximum level of great performance. The avoidable foods are including energy and protein bars, sports drink and as well as it is also needful to avoid

Before running a long-drawn-out there are some recommended ways that must be done by an athlete? The foremost tips for them are:

Don’t carbo-overload

A body can store sufficient amount of carbohydrates in order to keep them going for around 90 minutes approx., which it has to help to sweltering fat reserves for liveliness

Make the use of plain and familiar foods

To avoid from unwanted gas, diarrhea, inflating, it is necessary to take care from junk foods, avoid unused foods and also keep away from spicy foods as well.

Supplements used by body builders

There are some supplements used by an athlete. It is appropriate for working amazingly, but if diet is not proper then these supplements will not be very much effective. Those supplements are usually included, multi vitamins, glutamine, creatine, thermogenics, ZMA as well (Perret, 2014).

Side effects of supplements

As it is known that there are several supplements used by an athlete to improve the efficiency However, not all supplements are effective. Although there disadvantages are more as compared to their advantages. As time passes it weakens the body, in some cases it make the body addicted to these supplements.

Nutrition for School-Age Children and Healthy Lunchboxes
Key dietary

The key dietary for school age children are usually including eat four to five times a day, as well as including snacks, which are healthy for children. Degree of development and frequently eat 4 to 5 times per day, as well as snacks which are full of nutrients. After coming back from schools it is good for them to take healthy snacks, because these snacks contribute more third of the total calorie for the day (Napier, 2014).

Supplements recommended during childhood

In case of required supplements for children, vitamins and minerals are significant elements of the total nutritional needs. The reason is that body is not able to produce more amount of vitamin, therefore some supplements are required to adequate the nutritional need in children. The included supplements are Vitamin A, B, C and D.

As body need multiple vitamins, that why vitamins and minerals should be increased in an adequate amount. In certain, a good and increased quantity of protein, iron, calcium and as well as vitamins A and D is necessary.

Recommended food

As calcium is most significant in school age children, therefore it is recommended to increase the amount of calcium in their daily routine. They need calcium around 500 mg per day, and the best basis of this nutrient is cow’s milk. As well as meat, eggs, wheat is also recommended for them.

Foods to avoid

These are the following food, which are avoidable at school age of children, for example processed meats, sports drink, canned tomatoes, sugary cereals (Weichselbaum, 2014)

Potential food allergens

Along with a food allergy, the human body comes into some reaction process as though that specific food product is risky and unsafe. Due to which the immune system of body produces antibodies in order to fight with the food allergen, the constituent in the food that activates the antipathy.

In the schools of UAE all types of processed food, as well as all categories of crisps, fries and chocolates are provided, although now it is going to be replaced by healthier selections such as vegetables and healthy fruits in the Northern Emirates state schools and in all Dubai.

Ways to Make Food More Fun for children

In order to attract children towards healthier foods, there are some interesting ways by which school age children can easily get interest, for example by changing the color of food into their favorite colors, because colorful foods naturally more attracting to children, like this we can maximize their interest, use fun names of their foods.

To encourage the use of healthy food in children. Do some additional efforts, a child can detecthungerand fullness better, Formerly offering a subsequent facilitating or serving, test your child by making them await for a few minutes to observe if they are really still hungry.

Healthy snacking vs. Junk food

Junk foods usually have high ranks of calories from sugar or fat along with littleprotein,minerals and vitamins. Foods generally measured junk foods contain saltedsnack foods,candy, sweetdesserts, gum, sugarycarbonated beverages and fried fast food. Plain snacks similar plain cereals, vegetables and pasta are correspondingly slightly general.

What effect does tobacco/sheesha have on our body and diet?

Tobacco is a sort of plant that is usually grown in the southeastern of USA. North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, are the manufacturers of tobacco (Khan, 2014).

Tobacco smoke comprises a poisonous mixture of more than 7,000 toxic elements. In which 70 types of chemicals can cause cancer among the addicted users of smoking. Here are some of the chemicals.

Polonium 210
Vinyl chloride

There are several side effects for long term smokers. Even though the risks regarding health are at high risks among heavy smokers, the usage of tobacco damages the lungs. Condensed lung function and a deteriorating of difficulties from asthma.

All smokers are at further risk for:

Coronary heart disease
Peripheral vascular disease
High cholesterol (LDL)
Lung cancer
Cancer of the mouth, throat and voice box
Cancer of the pancreas
Cancer of the kidney, and urinary bladder
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Influenza The common cold
Peptic ulcers

Although it is not well understood, that smoking can have direct effects on the daily dietary routine. Smoking is related with reduced nutrition intake and subordinate body weight. Nicotine accomplished whichever by means of smoking or by smokeless routes, is considered the main constituent of tobaccos.

There are many negative effects of smoking on human bodies. Nicotine and the poisonous ingredients in cigarettes not solitary trough the body of vitamins and minerals, nevertheless they also chunk absorption of these vigorous nutrients.

Of course tobacco is harmful for body.

Percentage of tobacco use in UAE.

Several efforts have been done by the government of UAE in order to control the excessive use of smoking in the Arab countries, different number of orders have been made to put health warning on the packets of tobacco and also decided to start some advertisement campaign with the help of TV and radio stations.

After several researches it has been observed that the usage of tobacco is not useful for human being, as it damages the lungs, increases the respiratory problems like asthma. Therefore there should have something in order to ban the usage of these types of toxic elements as it is harmful and spoil the precious life of human being. Smoking is self-sufficiently related with reduced bone density of the hip, in body of younger and as well as older persons.

What effect does caffeine have on our body and diet?
Caffeine is formed by means of numerous plants as a self-protective mechanism, and the caffeine which is added to soda derives from unused produces of tea and coffee handling.
Chemicals existent in caffeine arenitrogenousorganic compoundbelong to thealkaloidgroup, constituents that have noticeable physiological special effects.
Sometimes caffeine is safe for alders, but on the other hand it has numerous side effects like it can cause insomnia, vomiting, headache, anxiety and agitation as well, caffeine can also increase heart rate and can disturb the respiration.
Even amongst grown person, substantial caffeine usage can become the main reason of unkind side effects. And caffeine possibly will not be a respectable selection for people who are exceedingly delicate to its possessions.
As soon as the caffeine enters the body it is previously being metabolized by means of the liver and fragmented into theophylline, theobromine, and paraxanthine. The caffeine metabolites are at that point clarified through the kidneys and after that they exit from the body with the urine.
Caffeine also prevents the quantity of calcium that is engrossed over the gastric tract and exhausts the volume reserved by means of the bones. Caffeine constrains the receptors of vitamin D, which bound the quantity that will be fascinated (Bray, 2014). For the reason that vitamin D is significant in the absorption and as well as the usage of calcium in bone, further this can reduce bone inorganic density, consequential in an augmented danger for osteoporosis.
Benefits of Caffeine

Caffeine has several side effects like caffeine assorted along with carbsrefills muscle glycogen meditations sooner after isometrics. Therefore caffeine is healthier than sleep while you have to be alert during driving

We can conclude that caffeine expended by means of ordinary sources is doubtless the preeminent meanwhile numerous of the healthiness welfares of caffeine are perhaps fundamentally because of the extraordinary antioxidant intensities originate by consistent coffee and tea.


Bray, G. A., & Popkin, B. M. (2014). Dietary sugar and body weight: have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes? Health be damned! Pour on the sugar. Diabetes care, 37(4), 950-956.

Kok, E., Pedersen, J., Onori, R., Sowa, S., Schauzu, M., De Schrijver, A., & Teeri, T. H. (2014). Plants with stacked genetically modified events: to assess or not to assess?.Trends in biotechnology.

Khan, A., & Laronde, D. M. (2014). Waterpipe smoking: A” healthy” alternative to cigarettes or a health hazard in disguise?. Canadian Journal of Dental Hygiene, 48(1).

McFadden, B., & Lusk, J. (2014). Cognitive Biases in the Assimilation of Scientific Information on Global Warming and Genetically Modified Food.

Napier, C., & Hlambelo, N. (2014). Contribution of school lunchboxes to the daily food intake of adolescent girls in Durban. South African Journal of Child Health, 8(2), 59-63.

Perret, C., & Shaw, G. (2014). 11 Use of Supplements in Athletes. Sports Nutrition for Paralympic Athletes, 167.

Weichselbaum, E., & Buttriss, J. L. (2014). Diet, nutrition and schoolchildren: An update. Nutrition Bulletin.